There are different kinds or degrees of matter and vacuum (dispersed matter). Each contains or is a media of different tenuity or density and has unique characteristics or parameters. See Subdivision, Dispersion, Scalar, Etheric Elements
|Compound Interetheric||Neutral Center||Void||Superconscious||God||Super Vacuum||Gluon||4-space / Time|
|Interetheric||Interetheron||Atomolini||Conscious||Awareness||Vacuum||Quark||4-space / Time|
|Etheric||Etheron||Etheron||Mind Activated||Ether||Ultra Plasma||Photon||4-space / Time||Akasa|
Showing seven planes, dimensions, subdivisions, levels, realms, orders, gamuts or ranges of matter, force and energy. As also levels of tenuity or solidity.
Figure 1.3 illustrates how the universe is constructed of imbedded or nested (holographic or Fractal) layers of physical structure and dynamics. Molecules are made of atoms, atoms are made of leptons, etc. These are not dimensions existing independent of each other but are intermingled and interpenetrating each other. The lower frequency dimensions or realms of existence are predicated on or effectuated by the higher frequency realms, dimensions, planes or levels. The finer levels are the building blocks of the lower realms. In other words there can be no molecules without atoms; no atoms without electrons; no electrons without photons; no photons without quarks, etc. The structure of these nested realms are held (Keely) to be identical on all levels much like the repetitive imbeddedness of fractal math and images. The same structure applies to syntropic energy formation. See Nested Morphology
This chart also shows the reciprocal (rhythmic balanced interchange) nature of the dynamical universe and correlates ancient earth, water, air and fire with modern chemistry and physics.
12.00 - Reciprocating Proportionality
13.04 - Atomic Subdivision
13.05 - Seven Levels Subdivisions Planes or Realms of Mind Matter and Energy
13.15 - Principle of Proportion
14.33 - Mind Force - Light - Etheric Subdivision
18.14 - Mind is the Ultimate Scalar Quantity
7.3 - Law of Love - Reciprocal Interchange of State on Multiple Subdivisions
AQUEOUS DISINTEGRATION - Snell
ATOMIC THIRD SUBDIVISION
COMPOUND INTERETHERIC NEUTRAL CENTER SEVENTH SUBDIVISION
Eighteen Attributes or Dimensions
ETHERIC FIFTH SUBDIVISION
Figure 1.3 - Subdivisions of Matter and Energy
Figure 1.3.1 - Subdivisions of Matter and Energy according to Keely
Figure 13.06 - Atomic Subdivision
Figure 2.2 - Nested subdivisions of Matter from Molecular to Compound Interetheric
Figure 7.7 - Keelys Morphology - Infinite Subdivision of Matter
FORM OF THE ATOM
INTERATOMIC FOURTH SUBDIVISION
INTERETHERIC SIXTH SUBDIVISION
INTERMOLECULAR SECOND SUBDIVISION
Locked Potentials and Subdivisions
Mind Force the hidden Scalar Force
Scale of Locked Potentials
Table of Subdivisions of Matter and Energy
THE SEVEN FORMS OF SUBSTANCE
The Seven Subdivisions of Matter and Energy
States of Matter, Wikipedia
"That tuning forks can be so constructed as to show coincident or concordant association with each other, is but a very weak illustration of the fact which governs pure acoustic assimilation. The best only approach a condition of about a fortieth, as regards pure attractive and propulsive receptiveness. By differentiating them to concordant thirds, they induce a condition of molecular bombardment between themselves, by alternate changes of long and short waves of sympathy. Bells rung in vacuo liberate the same number of corpuscles, at the same velocity as those surrounded by a normal atmosphere, and hence the same acoustic force attending them, but are inaudible from the fact that, in vacuo, the molecular volume is reduced. Every gaseous molecule is a resonator of itself, and is sensitive to any and all sounds induced, whether accordant or discordant." [attractive and propulsive receptiveness] [Snell Manuscript - The Book, GRADUATION OF MACHINES, page 5]
"I am working in a new lead and propose to show my introductory evolutions in proof of the negatization of an Etheric substance to produce vacuum. Professor Rogers saw the operation of inducing these Etheric vacuums and pronounced the result wonderful I showed from one to fourteen lbs. during the evolutions." [Keely]
"About November 1884 Keely was conducting new researches in Etheric vacuums. He says: "Working in a new lead I propose to show my introductory evolutions in proof of the negatization of an Etheric substance to produce vacuums. Professor Rogers saw the operation inducing these Etheric vacuums and pronounced the result wonderful." At that time he evolved vacuums of from one pound to fourteen pounds per square inch, and he stated further: "As soon as I combine all the positive and negative forces of Etheric vibration in the triple vibratory sphere engine (his Disintegrator) my machine will be perfect." During the course of his researches he demonstrated "Etheric wave motion, concentration under vibratory concussion and negative vacuous tenuity." During the last part of his experiments along this line he succeeded in producing vacuums of from 30 inches to 57 inches of mercury in the ordinary barometer tubes used in measuring these vacuums, which would be utterly impossible by any mechanical means except genuine.
"Experimentally, these vacuums he produced are the strongest evidence that Keely actually discovered and which no one would believe because of the stock company fraud which was planned and put through by the stock speculators without his knowledge or consent. The very best vacuum that science, of Keely's day or this (1934), can produce, is 17.99+ inches of mercury, in view of which his maximum vacuum of 57 inches can, or should be, appreciated as quite as marvelous an achievement alone, as the discovering of America or the invention of the cinematograph.
"Keely states that through neutral focalization there are three different degrees of vacuum evolution, corresponding to the three fundamental forms of matter; 1) Molecular and intermolecular ruled by the enharmonic chord; 2) atomic and interatomic ruled by the harmonic chord; and 3) Etheric and interetheric ruled by the dominant chord." [Snell Manuscript]
"The vapor from the liberator, registered at 20,000 lbs. per square inch has a range of atomic motion of 1333 1/3 the diameter of the atmospheric molecule with constant rotary vibratory action. At 10,000 lbs., 666 2/3, at 5,000, 333 1/3, at 2500, 166 2/3, at 1250, 83 1/3, at 625, 41 2/3. The higher the range of atomic motion the greater its tenuity and pressure. The very evolution on the negative shows a vacuum of a much higher order than was ever produced before confounding all theory to analyze. The highest vacuum known is 17.999999, or not quite 30 inches, but Keely produced etheric vacuums repeatedly of 50 to 57 inches ranging down to 30 inches or 57 lbs. All operations of nature have for their sensitizing centers of introductory action, triple vacuum evolutions. These evolutions are centered in atomic triple revolutions, highly radiophonic in their character and thoroughly independent of all outside forces in their spheres of action. No conceivable power, however great, can break up their independent centers. These triple centers are the foundation of the universe, and mathematically considered, the respective and relative motion of these atomic triplets, gravitating to and revolving around each other, is about one and one-third of their circumference. The problem of this action, when analyzed mathematically, (taking it as the quadrature of the circle) would baffle mathematical science to bring it to a numerical equation. Every revolving body is impressed by nature with certain laws making it susceptible of the operation of force, which being applied, impels motion. These bodies never can approach nearer than a certain limit, nor farther than a certain point. They are, at some mean point, made perfectly equal, and may therefore be considered as one force and as one element. It matters not that other and disturbing forces exist outside or inside the space these bodies revolve in, because if this force must be considered as acting uniformly, applying itself to each of these bodies in a way to produce a perfect equation on all, it is as if this outside force were nonexisting. [Snell Manuscript - The Book, page 2]
The structure of the air molecule according to Keely is as follows: Broken up, by vibratory action, he finds it to contain the "atomic triplet." This exists in a triangular position within the molecule, at its center, unless acted upon by electricity, when the molecule becomes oblate and the three atoms are ranged in a line within unless broken up by vibration. Nature never gives a vacuum, consequently the space within the molecule not occupied by the atomic triplet must be filled with something. This is where the "all-pervading ether" has made its secret abode through untold aeons. [Laurence Oliphant] [Snell Manuscript - The Book, page 3]
How Much Energy is There in the Vacuum?
"Since, in our case, the denominator represents a fantastically huge quantity, calculations lead to staggering results: the energy of vacuum fluctuations comes to 1080 grams per cubic centimetre. Everything becomes clear by comparison, says the old proverb. And we too compare this figure with the one that characterizes the energy density of actually existing atomic nuclei (1014 grams per cubic centimetre). If we also take into account that throughout the metagalaxy, the only part of the universe we know of, there are only about 1080 particles, the figure estimated by Krechet and Ponomarev seems to be simply unbounded." [Something Called Nothing, page 181]
06/25/09: Vacuum is enharmonic dispersion or dispersed matter in a tenuous state or condition. [Dale Pond]
"The technique that only uses explosion or expansion forces is lethal and hostile to nature. This kind of technique must miss the natural counter force or the organic synthesis which is a negative room of quality - The Organic Vacuum - that reunites the polar and the increasing to the favour of the uprising of a new life form." [Viktor Schauberger]
In Nature there are only structures and orifices. From these arise all forms of materialisation and dematerialisation, if orifices and vessels are organised in an inversely symmetrical configuration and within them the reciprocal gaseous substances are correctly dosed. Pressure and suction, and most important of all, the temperature-gradient should be aligned in the right sense (+ not -), through which the desired energy is freed at the point of intersection.
This can be accumulated if the thing is cooled during its motion, becoming homogenously structured in the process. In this manner it is even possible to decompose ordinary air into animalistic electrical essences, or to produce an artificial thunderstorm, whose transformative essences discharge into metal conductors, calling into being a physical vacuum with which a thunderstorm can be produced in the tube, whose power exceeds that of a cyclone. While it is still necessary to use small quantities of earthly substances in the artificial production of petrol (gasoline), no fuels of any kind are needed to operate the air-turbine. This will avert the crisis that will inevitably ensue if nature-alienated humanity continues to combust substances in its machines, which are preordained by Nature for the provision of food. The seemingly remarkable behaviour of liquids under the influence of light is the totally natural permanent condition of the eternal 'Arising' and 'Passing Away', of the evolution from small to large and vice versa, whose vital harmony Goethe has already explained to us so beautifully that all we need to do is read his works so as to create the perpetual interaction required by all molecules in order to exist in a state of well-behaved order. [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, Conclusions]
American airship, the Akron, which was filled with helium, collapsed (imploded) and crashed on a cool and misty morning, because for hitherto unknown reasons the helium-filling reverted to water. In the first case fire was created and in the second case - water. With fire an approximately 1,800-fold increase in volume occurs, whereas the reverse metamorphosis of helium into water is associated with an 1,800-fold reduction in volume. This reduced volume is the 'biological vacuum', which is the result of chain-reactions and is an ideal source of motive power. In biotechnical machines a vacuum is initially created through the volume-reducing function of the whorl-pipes through which, in a process of repulsion, energy can be drawn off. [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, The Biological Vacuum - The Optimal Driving Force for Machines]
My allegations in this regard were construed an as affront to the honour and prestige of the Establishment and I was requested to provide written proof of these provocative assertions to the university professors I mentioned by name. This I also did and without exception they all had to capitulate. I could prove to them that as a result of techno-academic systems of motion - a predominantly centrifugal form of mass-movement - an atomic (electrolytic) excess pressure builds up in the structure of the basic elements, thereby producing an increase in temperature; in other words, a feverish condition. In contrast, an atomic (magnetic) low or negative pressure is generated through a form of planetary mass-motion in which centripetence predominates. This gives rise to a concentrative, negative pressure, which functions as a biological vacuum. It was discovered as early as 1908 by Professor Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch, who recognised that neither breathing nor expansion of the lungs would be possible if the biological vacuum were not to exist. He was declared a fool all the same and dismissed without notice when he told his superior, Professor Mikolitsch, the following:
"Were there no vacuum between the surface of the lungs and the pleura, no intake of breath, nor resistanceless expansion of the lungs would be possible. Everything would suffocate were this biological vacuity to be filled with normal, atmospheric pressure through any form of perforation." [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, The Biological Vacuum - The Optimal Driving Force for Machines]
Professor Sauerbruch was unaware that this vacuum comes into being through the planetary movement of the blood. Had he known, then medicine would have taken a completely different course.
I was further able to prove that because contemporary machines operate using centrifugence, resistances to motion with a reactive function are
11 Here the German word is 'Qualitatstoff', which literally means 'quality-matter, or substance'. With this Viktor Schauberger intended to describe a higher, 4th or 5th dimensional magnitude of pure quality as a thing in itself and as the driving force in the raising of quality of whatever kind as a 'quality-producer' or 'quality-generating substance' or energy. The English expression term 'qualigen' used here, is a contraction of the two words 'quality' and 'generator'. — Ed. 12 Active and reactive energies, temperatures, etc.: 'Active' essentially relates to the more physical dimension, to what is outwardly physical and perceptible, physically palpable, gravitationally affected or oriented, and life-negating, i.e. to energies that tend to curb, limit and brake life, evolution and development. 'Reactive' on the other hand relates to more metaphysical dimensions, to what is inwardly physically intangible, levitationally affected or oriented, and life-affirming, i.e. to energies that tend to foster, re-animate and accelerate life, evolution and higher development. - Ed. [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, The Biological Vacuum - The Optimal Driving Force for Machines]
If ordinary air is bio-centrifugated above the speed of sound in very specially contoured and suitably alloyed development-facilitating devices, for which an auxiliary mechanical force is required in the order of 0.08 kW per cubic metre of moved air, then the torque-producing current (synthesising current) mentioned above arises, which also accelerates the device that generates it. This further accelerates the intake of air, which again intensifies the strength of the current, resulting in an even higher rate of rotation, which provokes yet a further increase in the torque-producing current, and so on. Ultimately a powerful and highly potent vacuum is created in front of the generating device, while at the same time the expansive pressure described above exerts a squeezing, wedging pressure along its teardrop-like body (see figs. 22 & 38). These suctional and pressural forces, which evolve along a common developmental axis in the form of a fully developed dynagen gradient can overcome any weight or form of anchorage. [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, The Life-Current in Air and Water]
is first generated through friction. This heat is immediately absorbed by the water and in the process a physical vacuum is created, which then gives rise to the emergence of inner-atomic rays. Due to the absorbed heat, the free, dissolved oxygen still present in the water becomes aggressive and the emergent geospheric rays become aggressive owing to the presence of the vacuum. Through the encounter between the mutually opposed, contra-directionally propagated, excited rays, the precondition for the marriage is created. The child of this union is organic, or cold light. [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, Letter to Werner Zimmermann]
With sudden cooling, carbones become highly aggressive. A marriage between the highly aggressive phos-elements and the equally aggressive C now takes place. The super-potentiated geospheric gas product evolving from this union binds the hydrogen through the emergent inner vacuum and rising rapidly, cools off and lands on an organic anode, whose upper section is extended into a cathode. [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, Letter to Werner Zimmermann]
"With the assumption that their radial forces are thrown off this planet at or near Cancer and Capricorn, then it were possible when the vibrations of sun's rays at a certain deflection on passing through these emanating radial vibrations to set up a partial vacuum, thereby causing winds." Cayce (195-70)
"All electrical (unbalanced polar) motion in the octave wave turns spirally around centering, still Magnetic (balanced polar) shafts, just as cyclones do. All electrical compression begins by violent expansion to create a condition which borns its opposite, as all opposites do in Nature." Russell, [Atomic Suicide?], page 122
"Expansion is the result of MIND-DESIRE TO GIVE by its outward explosive effect from its zero cathode. The re-giving of compressed energy, likewise, is an outward explosive effect, as electric compression ceases, and the result of that effect is to born its opposite and leave great black holes within compressed masses as they return to the zero of their Magnetic stillness." Russell, [Atomic Suicide?], page 125
"All of the energy of all Creation is in the omnipresent vacuum of the zero universe. The error of man's observation of this universal FACT lies in his beliefs that energy moves. The omnipresent vacuum never moves. It is the fulcrum from which motion draws its energy to move, but the fulcrum never moves. Every ultra-microscopic point in this Cosmic vacuum tube, which the universe is, is a fulcrum from which Mind-desire is extended to express the Idea of Mind. Mind-desire is the sole energy of the universe. Motion is but the lever which expresses the energy extended to it from the fulcrum." [Walter Russell]
"Fixing a frame and metric to the vacuum actually prescribes the behavior, characteristics, and structure assumed for the entire vacuum/spacetime of the universe. Properly, the characteristics (structure, intensity and dynamics) of the vacuum potentials must determine the frame and metric, not vice-versa. Further, we take the unorthodox modeling view that normal observer 3-space (i.e., mass) exists "outside" the dimensionality of the vacuum structure. The normal 3-space, however, exchanges discretized flux with the vacuum substructure via virtual particle interactions which are hyper-dimensional a priori. The only common dimension between the unobservable vacuum and the 3-space of observable mass is time, which is taken to be fragmented and disintegrated into pieces, quite in contradistinction to Minkowski's continuous 4th (time) dimension." Thomas Bearden
"Problem is that, sooner or later, anyone who is seriously interested in EM energy from the vacuum is going to have to think about, and ponder upon, the source charge problem.
Any charge just sits there and pours out real observable photons in all directions, continually. That is easily confirmed by experimental measurement.
Yet no instrument known to man can detect any energy input to the charge syntropy. Again, that is easily confirmed experimentally.
But those photons pouring out at light speed in all directions, establish and continually replenish the charge's associated EM fields and potentials '“ at light speed. Leave the charge alone, and it will pour out real EM energy freely, from now till the end of the universe. The original charges in the original matter of the universe have been pouring out 'free EM energy' this way for some 13 billion years.
All observable EM energy in the universe is produced by the associated charges as freely flowing streams of real, usable EM energy. As Van Flandern points out with his frozen and unfrozen waterfall analogies, the 'static' EM field is not like a 'frozen' waterfall, but is precisely like an 'unfrozen' waterfall. It is comprised of internal parts in continuous motion, although the overall form and pattern appear 'static' and unmoving.
Every observable EM field and potential '“ and every joule of observable EM energy in the universe '“ is freely produced by the associated source charge(s) in that manner.
The source charge problem faces us with two possibilities: Either
(1) The charge creates all that energy from nothing at all, thereby falsifying and destroying the conservation of energy law (and most of physics), or
(2) The charge continually absorbs disordered virtual state energy from the subquantal oscillations of the virtual state vacuum, changing each absorption of a virtual photon into mass-energy of the mass of the charge, thereby reordering these differentials of virtual state energy (that is a negative entropy operation falsifying the present second law of thermodynamics, which already has many known and accepted violations and requires revision), coherently integrating the now-reordered differentials of mass-energy to the next quantum level of excitation. Whereupon the zitterbewegung of the vacuum 'shakes out' a real, observable photon, so that the excitation abruptly decays by emission of a real, observable photon. The process iterates, so that observable photons are continually emitted, with no observable energy input but with the required energy input in virtual state form.
The latter choice is what actually happens. So every charge in the universe is already a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) thermodynamic system, continuously consuming positive entropy of the virtual state and producing negative entropy of the observable state, as shown theoretically possible by Evans and Rondoni in 2002.
Further, this also violates the Klein geometry utilized in physics since 1872, and requires change of the underlying geometry to Leyton's object oriented geometry, now established very clearly in robotics, etc. Klein geometry, by its group symmetry operations, dictates that breaking symmetry at one level loses the information at that level, so that the overall symmetry is reduced to that of the next lower level. That is a sort of built-in 'entropy' producing operation whenever symmetry is broken. On the other hand, Leyton's more advanced groups and group methods result in the information at a given level being retained when symmetry is broken at that level, and also a new symmetry formed at the next higher level. That is a sort of built-in 'negative entropy' (syntropy) producing operation whenever symmetry is broken.
Nature is beginning to strongly show the correctness of the Leyton geometry and its superiority over the old Klein geometry.
So by making the appropriate change in geometry also, finally all meshes and the long vexing source charge problem is solved.
Also, we point out that circa 1902 Hendrik Lorentz arbitrarily symmetrically regauged the already curtailed Maxwell-Heaviside equations, so that he just arbitrarily discarded all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems! He did it just to get simpler equations much easier to solve, thus eliminating most of the tedious numerical methods otherwise required. Lorentz symmetrical equations are much easier to solve and get algebraic solutions.; The standard CEM/EE model used in all electrical engineering still uses Lorentz symmetrically regauged equations, which means that all asymmetrical systems are still arbitrarily discarded and ignored. Nature does not eliminate those systems; the early scientists did it and scientists and engineers still propagate that huge error for some inexplicable reason.
The very type of system represented by the source charge and its continuous production of negative entropy is an example of just such an asymmetrical electrical power system. It takes its input energy as disordered energy from the subquantal fluctuations of the vacuum, reorders to apply a negative entropy operation, breaking the 'symmetry' of the virtual state vacuum itself. Then in accord with Leyton geometry, this generates a new symmetry at the next higher level: the observable state level where we encounter the usable EM fields and potentials and usable EM energy of the universe. (See fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh subdivisions of Matter.)
The bottom line is that all EM energy already is extracted from the vacuum, and it occurs in freely flowing streams of usable EM energy, from the source charges (see electron). We ourselves do not have to learn how to extract usable EM energy from the vacuum! All charges and dipoles in the universe already do that freely and continuously. We simply have to relearn how to build and use asymmetrical Maxwellian systems, using the free regauging energy to freely power loads, without destroying the 'external' source of potential energy flow." [Thomas Bearden]
"For a lucid and profound presentation of the entire subject of elementary particle physics and quantum field theory, see T.D. Lee, Particle Physics an Introduction to Field Theory, Harwood Academic Publishers, New York, 1981. Chapter 16: Vacuum as the Source of Asymmetry is particularly important. Here Lee concisely covers the idea of degenerate vacuum states, vacuum structuring, and vacuum effects causing symmetry breaking (violation of conservation laws). An excellent coverage of asymmetries and observables is given on p. 181-188. For example, a non-observable (virtual entity) has become observable. Thus there exist mechanisms for the direct translation between virtual and observable states. For engineering hidden variable mechanisms that allow just such vacuum engineering to be deterministically accomplished, see T.E. Bearden, Update on Scalar Electromagnetics: New Breakthroughs, Proceedings, USPA Annual Symposium, Sacramento, CA, 1989." [Thomas Bearden]
"The charge of vacuum spacetime is assumed to be zero, when in fact it is a very high value. Vacuum has no mass, but it has great massless charge and virtual particle charge flux. For proof that a charged vacuum is the seat of something in motion,(86). In fact, vacuum is charge, identically, and it is also "spacetime" and at least four-dimensional." [Thomas Bearden, The New Tesla Electromagnetics and The Secrets of Electrical Free Energy]
Editor's Note: Bearden refers to the photon as a "thing". I do not know what Bearden really thinks a photon is but in SVP a Photon, like all quantum particles, is a discrete quantity of dynamically balanced entropic and syntropic forces controlled by a neutral center - or what I call dynamic centralizations. Hence we have to come to terms with least quantities of attractive and repulsive forces. This least attractive force in orthodox science (mathematically speaking) is the gluon. And we know the attractive force itself is an effect of harmonic vibrations and oscillations. See Law of Attraction and Law of Repulsion
See List of Synonyms for Scalar
Recommended book on vacuum: Something Called Nothing
Vacuum from Carbon
1 - Cooled carbon creates a vacuum. from "History of Vacuum Science and Technology"
2 - "Something Called Nothing" Mir Publishing; good book on vacuum physics
3 - Keely's "carbon register"....
4 - carbon to be used in original dynasphere Actuator alloy....
ENERGY FROM VIBRATION - CONDENSATION OF MATTER THROUGH VIBRATORY INDUCTION
Bearden - Precursor Engineering: Via Tickling of the Dirac Sea Vacuum
ENERGY FROM VIBRATION - CONDENSATION OF MATTER THROUGH VIBRATORY INDUCTION
Figure 3.6 - Tornado Vacuums up Everything for Redistribution
Figure 7.11 - Russells Vacuum becoming Matter on Three Vectors
Keely - Electricity from Vacuum
Latent Force in Interstitial Spaces
List of Synonyms for Scalar
Longitudinal Waves in Vacuum
Something Called Nothing. One of the best books around about vacuum. pdf download
Sound in Vacuum
Tesla - Electricity from Vacuum
Vacuum from Vibratory Induction
Was Keely a Fraud
2.13 - Vacuum
6.0.5 - Space seen as Constructive Cubes
12.30 - Thermal Radiation and Thermal Vacuum or Cold
15.11 - Dissociating Water with Vacuum