"QED, The Strange Theory of Light and Matter", Feynman, shows protons made of three quarks on page 134.
"The hypothetical particle (quark) that is believed to be the basic constituent of the elementary particles. One prominent representative of the lepton species, which comes in three families, each with an electrically charged lepton and a neutral neutrino, is the electron. It is known to play the all-important role in chemical and electrical phenomena. According to present-day knowledge, the leptons are elementary, i.e. are indivisible and have no substructure.The proton (and neutron), i.e., nucleur matter, on the other hand, has been shown to be composed of more elementary units, the quarks. Supposedly six different kinds of quarks exist, again grouped in three families, in complete symmetry to the leptons. Five of these quarks have been found, and recent experimental evidence exists for the sixth quark. Only the two members of the first family are needed for "ordinary" nuclear matter, the "u" (up) and the "d" (down) quark. However, the quarks seem to always be bound together to form the nuclear particles, called hadrons, and never have been observed as free particles: Three such quarks make up the proton, two u quarks and one d quark, while the neutron consists of one u quark and two d quarks." [From Atoms to Quarks - An Introduction to the Strange World of Particle Physics, Refil, 1980) (Neutrino Structure of the Ether, Ruderfer, Martin)] (underline added)
A common concept and thread connecting Keely, Russell, Cayce and Quimby is Matter is solidified tenuous Mind substance. Russell called it "frozen Light". Mind stuff or substance is a range of energy densities as shown in the Etheric Element table. In other words, Mind is a form of tenuous matter (gas, plasma or ether) that can be
- concentrated into form as Sai Baba has done,
- as heat as Qigong Master Jo demonstrates,
- as adding or subtracting mass and weight as Hubbard explains,
- as manipulating matter as Uri Geller has shown,
- as electrically powered motion as Daniel Pomerleau demonstrates,
- as powering and controlling flying craft as Otis T. Carr developed,
- as effecting matter as Emoto shows with his wonderful water crystals affected by mere thought and vibrations of music.
- Princeton University proved beyond all doubt that Mind is a force and can effect matter,
- as demonstrated in paranormal phenomena, Psycho-Cybernetics, telekinetic, Psychokinesis, Fire Walking, extra-sensory perception, psi, psionic, radionic phenomena. Or perhaps this: Hands of Power?
So when Keely says "All force is Mind Force" and then he harnessed this primal Mind Force in his machines we should investigate it further. This concept has been extensively written about by Blavatsky, Rudolf Steiner, Dr. H. Spencer Lewis, Quimby, Hubbard, Reich and countless others of equal note. [See Keelys Accomplishments, Mind Force the hidden Scalar Force, Natural Forces]
The mind force herein referenced above is sometimes called "Thinking with the Heart" or Whole Mind [See Universal Ground State]. This is not the split mind of the ego or intellect which invariably leads one astray or into error.
Quarks play an important and foundation role in electrical and chemical processes (chemism). This is vital to SVP because Mind Substance has to have chemical properties else how would (chemical or molecular) drugs effect physiology, consciousness equilibrium and diverse psi phenomena? Quarks also having a fundamental role in electrical phenomena tells us electrons are not all there is to consider in electricity (see Daniel Pomerleau). It is assumed then quarks and gluons are a part or portion of the interetheric (celestial) streams so often referred to by Keely which is the media or conveyor of Mind Force (etheric substances) demonstrated by so many exceptional people: Mind Force is a pre-existing Natural Force. It is further presumed the endocrine system operates on the quark and photon subdivisions of Mind Substance which would account for psi phenomena.
This revolutionary idea is explained by the fact that atoms (Keely's atomic subdivision) are composed of electrons, protons and neutrons - (Keely's interatomic subdivision). These three are composed of photons - (Keely's etheric subdivision). Photons are composed of quarks - (Keely's interetheric subdivision). Therefore quarks and gluons are the first level of differentiation of Undifferentiated Mind Force or Keely's compound interetheric subdivision of Mind and Force. This interetheric level of Mind and Matter is where thought, intuition, telepathy, remote viewing and clairvoyance happens. These unseen forces are the non-observable scalar forces that originate observable Newtonian effects. This matrix of matter and energy shows how our consciousness is integral to everything that is and happens around us. [See Subdivision]
|compound interetheric CI||Mind||Awareness|
|interetheric E+CI||quark||thought, idea||1910-||Radionics, Free Energy Devices|
|etheric E||photon||light||1947||1st Laser|
|etheric E||photon||light||1880||Edison Light Bulb|
|interatomic A+E||electron||electricity||1882||AC Power|
|interatomic A+E||electron||electricity||1800||1st battery|
|interatomic A+E||electron||Heat||1800||steam power|
|atomic A||atoms||purified elements||alchemy||nascent chemistry|
|intermolecular M+A||supercritical fluid||refined alloys||Iron, Bronze Age||tools, weapons|
|molecular M||molecule||alloys||Stone Age||Stone, Wood|
This table coordinates with the Etheric Elements table.
What this means in simple terms is while we use electrons to run our machinery and we are just now learning how to use photons in lasers and micro chips, Keely used photons, quarks and gluons (thought) to operate his machines over 100 years ago. He was a visionary of our age as were the early developers of interetherically operated radionic and psychotronic devices - not yet accepted into general science or society. Dale Pond, 03/21/10
"This thermodynamical characteristic of living processes generally, is carried over from other forms of variously living and extinct species and human cultures. This general principle of all living process presently known to us, is a general law. That law is definable as a condition of progress from lower to higher modes of thermodynamics of all forms of life, as the fruit of this same set of terms. The universe, most clearly the human species, depends for the survival of existing and improved species on increase of the relative "energy-flux density" in the flow of various expressions of progress and upward-directed evolution of living processes." Lyndon LaRouche, The Showdown has Begun
Index of Universities offering Education in Parapsychology
"The author describes a unified theory based on the assumption that a photon is actually composed of a neutrino and an anti-neutrino. This leads to simplified mathematics for quantum theory, based on phasor theory for electronics." [Lettere al Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di fisica. Series 2, 13(1), May (Maggio) 3, 1975. p. 9-13]
Quarks have the unusual characteristic of having a fractional electric charge, unlike the proton and electron, which have integer charges of +1 and -1 respectively. The up, charm and top quarks have a charge of +2/3, whilst the down, strange and bottom have a charge of -1/3. Although individual quarks have fractional electrical charges, they normally combine into 'hadrons' such that these hadrons have a net integer electric charge. Protons and neutrons are good examples of quark grouping or hadrons. In an experiment described in September 11,1997 issue of Nature, Weizmann Institute physicists measured fractional charges one-third that of an electron. (http://blazelabs.com/f-p-frac.htm)
[The Concept of the Photon, Scully, Marlan O. and Murray Sargent III) The author discusses current theories of the structure of the photon. Physics Today. 25(3), Mar. 1972. p. 38-47.]
Quark is a CLASS
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about particle physics: for other uses of the word Quark see Quark. In particle physics, the quarks are one of the two families of subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible (the other being the leptons). Objects made up of quarks are known as hadrons; well known examples are protons and neutrons.
Quarks are generally believed to never exist alone but only in groups of two or three (and, more recently, five); all searches for free quarks since 1977 have yielded negative results. Quarks are differentiated from leptons, the other family of elemental particles, by electric charge. Leptons (such as the electron or the muon) have integral charge (+1, 0 or -1) while quarks have +2/3 or -1/3 charge (antiquarks have -2/3 or +1/3 charge). All quarks have spin 1/2 \hbar.
One of the experiment in the CERN showed, that only 3 generation of the quarks exists. (From the resonance-width of Z boson.)
Name Charge Estimated mass (MeV)
Up (u) +2/3 1.5 to 4.5 1
Down (d) -1/3 5 to 8.5 1
Charm / Centre (c) +2/3 1,000 to 1,400
Strange / Sideways (s) -1/3 80 to 155
Top / Truth (t) +2/3 174,300 Â± 5,100
Bottom / Beauty (b) -1/3 4,000 to 4,500
1. The estimates of u and d masses are not uncontroversial and still actively being investigated; in fact, there are even suggestions in literature that the u quark could be essentially massless.
Ordinary matter such as protons and neutrons are composed of quarks of the UP or DOWN variety only. A proton contains two UP quarks and one DOWN quark, giving a total charge of +1. A neutron is made of two DOWN quarks and one UP quark, giving a total charge of zero. The other varieties of quarks can only be produced in particle accelerators, and degenerate quickly to the UP and DOWN quarks. (Electrons do not contain quarks, but are of a different type of particle called leptons).
According to the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), quarks possess another property that is called "color charge" (and that doesn't have anything to do with real color). Instead of just two different charge types (like + and - in electromagnetism), color charge comes in 6 types: "red", "green", "blue" and their corresponding "anticharges". In the theory, only "color neutral" particles can exist. Particles composed of one red, one green and one blue quark are called baryons; the proton and the neutron are the most important examples. Particles composed of a quark and an anti-quark of the corresponding anti-color are called mesons.
Particles of different color charge are attracted and particles of like color charge are repelled by the strong nuclear force, which is transferred by gluons, particles that themselves carry color charge. Therefore, colors of quarks are not static, but are interchanged by gluons, always maintaining the result neutral. This interchange of color charge is thought to result in the strong nuclear force holding quarks together in mesons and baryons; a "secondary" effect of this strong nuclear force is to hold the protons and neutrons together in the atomic nucleus.
Due to the extremely strong nature of the strong force, quarks are never found free. They are always bound into baryons or mesons. The exception to this is the t quark (discovered April 23, 1994), which is so massive that it decays before getting a chance to form baryons or mesons. When we try to separate quarks in a meson or baryon, as happens in particle accelerators, the strong force actually becomes stronger as they get farther apart. At some point it is more energetically favorable to create two more quarks to cancel out the increasing force, and two new quarks (a quark and an anti-quark) pop out of the vacuum. This process is called hadronization or fragmentation, and is one of the least understood processes in particle physics. As a result of fragmentation, when quarks are produced in particle accelerators, instead of seeing the individual quarks in detectors, scientists see "jets" of many color-neutral particles (mesons and baryons), clustered together.
The theory behind quarks was first suggested by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig, who found they could explain the properties of many particles by considering them to be composed of these elementary quarks. The name quark comes from "three quarks for Muster Mark", a nonsense phrase in James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.
Quarks are color-charged particles.
A fundamental matter particle that has strong interactions. Quarks have an electric charge of either +2/3 (up, charm and top) or -1/3 (down, strange and bottom) in units where the proton charge is 1.
There are six quarks, but physicists usually talk about the three pairs of quarks: Up/Down, Charm/Strange, and Top/Bottom. For each of these quarks there is a corresponding antimatter-quark (anti-quark.)
Quarks have the unusual characteristic of having fractional electric charge of either 2/3 or -1/3, unlike the -1 charge of an electron and the +1 charge of the proton. Quarks also carry another type of charge called color charge, which we will discuss later.
UP 2/3 CHARM 2/3 TOP 2/3
DOWN -1/3 STRANGE -1/3 BOTTOM -1/3
Quark fusion makes ten times as much energy as nuclear fusion
Quarks (not to be confused with the alien from Star Trek: Deep Space Nine) are tiny particles that make up the neutrons and protons inside atoms. They come in six different types, with scientists referring to them in terms of three pairs: up, down; charm, strange; and top, bottom. To find out more, researchers at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been smashing atoms together at high speeds. Doing so, causes these component parts to split from their parent atoms, and fuse with other particles, creating baryons.
Prior research has indicated that energy is produced when quarks bind together. By looking into one-such occurrence (a doubly-charmed baryon), the physicists found that it would take 130 megaelectronvolts (MeV) of energy to force two charm quarks together. On top of that, the fusion ends up releasing even more power, around 12 MeV.
Motivated by their findings, they then focussed on the much-heavier bottom quarks. The same binding process, they claim, would theoretically release approximately 138 MeV, which is almost eight times as much as hydrogen fusion (which also powers hydrogen bombs). Naturally, this set off alarm bells, with the researchers hesitating to go public with their findings. https://www.engadget.com/2017/11/07/bottom-quark-fusion-study-nuclear/
Quarks are given off during collisions or decay. All the other quarks have much more mass. So they quickly decay into smaller ones.. especially into up or down quarks.
Top quarks have around 179 times the mass of a proton. Charm have 20% more mass. Bottom quarks have around 4.3 times the mass of a proton. Strange have 1/10th.
Proton has like 440 times the mass of a up quark though. And ~ 200 times down quarks.
Muons are similar to electrons but 207 times the mass so they decay.
Few thousand muons pass through you every second though. From cosmic particles. Only making to the surface because they've moving at 99.997% light speed. So some serious GR velocity time dilation is going on. They have a 2.2 microsecond half life.
Taos are even heavier and have way shorter decay rates. They're kinda like electrons except 3400 times the mass.
Also only one to decay into hadrons. [source anon]