Keynote

noun: The fundamental of a key, can also be lead tone in a chord.
noun: The main tone an object or space resonates with.
noun: The note which, according to the signature, forms the starting point of the scale. The tonic. The 'do'.

Keely
"Taking for the keynote of his experiments, in applying intermolecular vapor to the running of an engine, that all the movements of elastic elements are rhythmical." [Chapter 6 of Keely and His Discoveries]

Keely's discoveries embrace the manner of obtaining the keynote, or "chord of mass," of mineral, vegetable and animal substance, therefore the construction of instruments by which this law can be utilized is only a question of full understanding of operation of this law. [Snell Manuscript - The Book, page 3]

Russell
"The lower diagram, marked C--C, represents their place in the tonal octave of the musical scale. The inert gas is the keynote of the electrical octave just as the note of C in the musical scale is the keynote for that octave. The keynote is omnipresent in all of the elements of matter as well as being omnipresent in the musical scale. By omnipresent we mean that it is in each note as well as its own tone. In music, for example, one is always conscious of

[p. 163]

Figure 42 - Electric Current Cycle.
(scan courtesy of University of Science & Philosophy)
(see Atomic Suicide, colorized version)
(click to enlarge)

"Fig. 42. Three examples of tonal rhythms of the electric current. Every cycle of an electric current is a complete octave of four pairs and an inert gas keynote. All motion in Nature is tonal and rhythmic. Its rhythms are geometrically and mathematically cube-based.

[p. 164]

the presence of the keynote, no matter which one is being sounded, nor how many of them. In matter the inert gas is not so mind-consciously aware of its omnipresence but the sudden electrocution of any element, by passing a heavy current through it, will release all of the tones except the eternal keynote. By this process the area of gravity, represented by the hole, is gradually compressed out until the hole is closed up by the united pair and the very dense, hot, solid sphere is the product. The life half of the polarized body, which was created by an effort, comes to an end, and the death half, which requires no effort, begins." [Atomic Suicide, page 162-164]

Ramsay
this is the middle of our chord, E, G, B; and remember that this also is G as we found it coming upward, C3 multiplied by 3 being G9. This is another note of the minor, the same in its quantity as that of the major. Now for another chord downward we must divide the root of the one we have found, namely E15, by 3, which will give us A5, the root of a center chord for the minor, and the very key-note of the relative minor to C. And remember that this A5 is just as we found it in coming upward, for F multiplied by 5 gave us A5. Now divide E15 by 5 and we have C3, the middle to our minor chord, A, C, E. Still we must remember that this C3 is just as we found it coming upward, for F multiplied by 3 is C3. Behold how thus far major and minor, though inversely developed, are identically the same in their notes, though not in the order in which they stand in the fifths thus generated. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 32]

This great genetic scale, the all-producer, the all-container, extends over six octaves on each side; for it is not till high in the sixth octave we get B in the major, and it is not till low in the sixth octave that we get F in the minor. It is in the fifth octave, however, that the note which is the distinctive mark of the masculine and feminine modes is generated. D27 in the major, and D26 2/3 in the minor, distinguishes the sex of the modes, and shows which is the head and which the helpmeet in this happy family.2 On the major side F, the root of the subdominant chord, that is the chord which is a fifth below the key-note C, is the root of all. This is the beginning of this creation. If we call the vibration-number of F one, for simplicity's sake, then F1 is multiplied by 3 and by 5, which natural process begets its fifth, C, and its third, A; this is the root, top, and middle of the first chord. From this top, C3, grows the next chord by the same natural process, multiplying by 3 and by 5; thus are produced the fifth and third of the second chord, G and E. From the top of this second chord grows the third and last chord, by the repetition of the same natural process; multiplying G9 by 3 and by 5 we [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 66]

third; and in order to do so, A has been mathematically raised a comma, which makes G A B now a 9-8 comma third. E F G, which in the scale of C was a 5-9 comma third, must now take the place of A B C in the scale of C, which was a 9-5 comma third; and in order to do so, F is mathematically raised 4 commas, and must be marked F#; and now the interval is right for the scale of G. E F# G is a 9-5 comma interval. This mathematical process, in the majors, puts every scale in its original form as to vibration-numbers; but since the same letters are kept for the naming of the notes, they must be marked with commas or sharps, as the case may be. In the Sol Fa notation such marks would not be necessary, as Do is always the key-note, Ray always the second, and Te always the seventh. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 83]

In a musical air or harmony, i.e., when once a key has been instituted in the ear, all the various notes and chords seem animated and imbued with tendency and motion; and the center of attraction and repose is the tonic, i.e., the key-note or key-chord. The moving notes have certain leanings or attractions to other notes. These leanings are from two causes, local proximity and native affinity. The attraction of native affinity arises from the birth and kindred of the notes as seen in the six-octave genesis, and pertains to their harmonic combinations. The attraction of local proximity arises from the way the notes are marshalled compactly in the octave scale which appears at the head of the genesis, and pertains to their melodic succession. In this last scale the proximities are diverse; the 53 commas of the octave being so divided as to give larger and lesser distances between the notes; and of course the attraction of proximity is strongest between the nearest; a note will prefer to move 5 commas rather than 8 or 9 commas to find rest. Thus far PROXIMITY. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 91]

This plate is a representation of the area of a scale; the major scale, when viewed with the large hemisphere, lowest; the minor when viewed the reverse way. It is here pictorially shown that major and minor does not mean larger and smaller, for both modes occupy the same area, and have in their structure the same intervals, though standing in a different order. It is this difference in structural arrangement of the intervals which characterizes the one as masculine and the other as feminine, which are much preferable to the major and minor as distinctive names for the two modes. Each scale, in both its modes, has three Fifths - subdominant, tonic, and dominant. The middle fifth is the tonic, and its lowest note the key-note of the scale, or of any composition written in this scale. The 53 commas of the Octave are variously allotted in its seven notes - 3 of them have 9 commas, 2 have 8, and 2 have 5. The area of the scale, however, has much more than the octave; it is two octaves, all save the minor third D-F, and has 93 commas. This is the area alike of masculine and feminine modes. The two modes are here shown as directly related, as we might figuratively say, in their marriage relation. The law of Duality, which always emerges when the two modes are seen in their relationship, is here illustrated, and the dual notes are indicated by oblique lines across the pairs. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 106]

WITH THEIR RATIO NUMBERS.

In the center column are the notes, named; with the lesser and larger steps of their mathematical evolution marked with commas, sharps, and flats; the comma and flat of the descending evolution placed to the left; the comma and sharp of the ascending evolution to the right; and in both cases as they arise. If a note is first altered by a comma, this mark is placed next to the letter; if first altered by a sharp or flat, these marks are placed next the letter. It will be observed that the sharpened note is always higher a little than the note above it when flattened; A# is higher than ?B; and B is higher than ?C, etc.; thus it is all through the scales; and probably it is also so with a fine voice guided by a true ear; for the natural tendency of sharpened notes is upward, and that of flattened notes downward; the degree of such difference is so small, however, that there has been difference of opinion as to whether the # and ? have a space between them, or whether they overlap, as we have shown they do. In tempered instruments with fixed keys the small disparity is ignored, and one key serves for both. In the double columns right and left of the notes are their mathematical numbers as they arise in the Genesis of the scales. In the seven columns right of the one number-column, and in the six on the left of the other, are the 12 major and their 12 relative minor scales, so arranged that the mathematical number of their notes is always standing in file with their notes. D in A minor is seen as 53 1/3, while the D of C major is 54; this is the comma of difference in the primitive Genesis, and establishes the sexual distinction of major and minor all through. The fourth of the minor is always a comma lower than the second of the major, though having the same name; this note in the development of the scales by flats drops in the minor a comma below the major, and in the development of the scales by sharps ascends in the major a comma above the minor. In the head of the plate the key-notes of the 12 majors, and under them those of their relative minors, are placed over the respective scales extended below. This plate will afford a good deal of teaching to a careful student; and none will readily fail to see beautiful indications of the deep-seated Duality of Major and Minor. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 109]

One purpose of this plate is to show that twelve times the interval of a fifth divides the octave into twelve semitones; and each of these twelve notes is the first note of a major and a minor scale. When the same note has two names, the one has sharps and the other has flats. The number of sharps and flats taken together is always twelve. In this plate will also be observed an exhibition of the omnipresence of the chromatic chords among the twice twelve scales. The staff in the center of the plate is also used as to show the whole 24 scales. Going from the major end, the winding line, advancing by fifths, goes through all the twelve keys notes; but in order to keep all within the staff, a double expedient is resorted to. Instead of starting from C0, the line starts from the subdominant F0, that is, one key lower, and then following the line we have C1, G2, etc., B6 proceeds to G? instead of F#, but the signature-number continues still to indicate as if the keys went on in sharps up to F12, where the winding line ends. Going from the minor end, the line starts from E0 instead of A0 - that is, it starts from the dominant of A0, or one key in advance. Then following the line we have B1, F#2, etc. When we come to D#5, we proceed to B? instead of A#6, but the signature-number continues as if still in sharps up [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 114]

In the festoons of ellipses the signatures are given in the usual conventional way, the major F having one flat and minor E having one sharp. The major and minor keys start from these respective points, and each successive semitone is made a new keynote of a major and a minor respectively; and each ellipse in the festoons having the key shown in its two forms; for example, in the major F, one flat, or E#, eleven sharps; in the minor E, one sharp, or F?, eleven flats. Thus is seen all the various ways that notes may be named. The four minor thirds which divide the octave may be followed from an ellipse by the curved lines on which the ellipses are hung; and these four always constitute a chromatic chord. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 115]

This is an illustration of the chromatic chord resolving by two semitonic progressions and one note in common into four key-notes, which are shown in different positions and inversions; for example F A C F, A C F A, C F A C. Like a universal joint, the chromatic chord turns to each in a suitable form for resolution. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 116]

This plate illustrates how the chromatic chord resolves into four key-notes, in different positions, by one semitonic progression and two notes in common; for example, G B D G, B D G B, D G B D. In a pianissimo and slow passage this resolution has a subtle, soft effect; like a snake in the grass. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 116]

In the three open columns are the three chromatic chords. In the close columns are the same chromatic chords, with the same designations, on the left. The middle row of letters are the chords of the major keys; the letter with the figure being the key note. The right hand row of letters are the chords of the minor keys marked in the same way. The artist will have no difficulty in making use of the other resolutions of this abundant store; but the young student should make similar tables of the other manners of resolution; he will find abundant help for this in other parts of this work. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 119]

Hughes
"Music, pure, natural, and harmonical, in the true and evident sense of the term, is the division of any keynote, or starting-point, into it's integral and ultimate parts, and the descending divisions will always answer to the ascending, having reference to the general whole. The essence and mystery in the development of harmonies consists in the fact that every keynote, or unit, is a nucleus including the past, the present, and the future, having in itself an inherent power, with a tendency to expand and contract. In the natural system, as each series rises, its contents expand and fall back to the original limit from any point ascending or descending; we cannot perceive finality in any ultimate; every tone is related to higher and lower tones; and must be part of an organized whole." - [F. J. Hughes, Harmonies of Tones and Colours - Developed by Evolution, page 16. See Overtone Series, fundamental]

General remarks on the method of harmonies developing on all kinds of instruments, including the human voice
—A musical note compared to a machine, the motive power not of our creation
—The imperfection of keyed instruments, from some notes acting two parts, attuned to the ideal of harmony within us
Macfarren quoted on the echoing power of a cathedral attuning the Amen
—Why music as an art precedes painting
—Philosophers and mathematicians have only studied music to a certain point
—Every key-note a nucleus, including the past, the present, and the future; no finality in any ultimate
—The late Sir John Herschel's views on the musical gamut alluded to
—The imperfection of keyed instruments adapts them to our present powers
—The laws will be seen to develope the twelve major and the twelve minor keys in unbroken sequence and in harmonious ratio; to gain them in geometric order [as] keyed instrument should be circular, the seven octaves interlacing in tones a lower and a higher series, . 15 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents1 - Harmonies]

The eighteen tones of keyed instruments veering round and in musical clef below, the twelve seen that develope major keys
—The seven colours answer to the seven white notes
—The use of the two chasms, the key-note C and its root F rising from them
—A major key-note complete in itself, embracing the eighteen tones
—In the whole process of harmony there is limit, every key-note having its point of rest, and yet it is illimitable, . . . . . . . 22 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents2 - Harmonies]

The key-note C sounding from within itself its six tones to and fro in trinities, the tones written as notes in musical clef
—The trinities hereafter termed primaries and secondaries
—The seven of each of the twelve key notes developing their tones
—The order in which the tones meet, avoiding consecutive fifths
Dissonance is not opposition or separation
—The use of the chasms and double tones is seen
—The isolated fourths sound the twelve notes
—Each double tone developes only one perfect major harmony, with the exception of F#-G?; F# as the key-tone sounds F? as E#, and G? as the key-tone sounds B? as C?
—The primaries of the twelve key-notes are shown to sound the same tones as the secondaries of each third harmony below, but in a different order

The twelve major scales
—The term key-note employed in the ordinary sense of the musician
—The twelve key-notes, with the six notes of each as they veer round in trinities, are written in musical clef, and the scales added
—The reversal of the four and three of the key-note and its trinities in the seven of its scale
—The twelve keys follow each other seven times through seven octaves linked into the lower and higher series
Keys mingled
—The modulating of scales, the eleventh notes rising to higher keys, . . . . . . 26 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents2 - Harmonies]

The same laws, developing the minor scales, show that the ascending and descending scales vary from the harmony of the key-note and its trinities
—Each key developing three harmonies
—The tenth note of a minor scale modulates into a higher key, . . . . 36 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents3 - Harmonies]

It is my firm belief that, if a powerful intellect takes up the radical idea contained in the following pages, it will be found to be the directing force or general key-note which will gradually disentangle intricacies in all the natural [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Introduction1 - Harmonies, page 9]

In a few remarks on "Tones and Colours," inserted in the Athenæum of February 24, 1877, I alluded to the great loss I had sustained by the sudden death of Dr. Gauntlett. I often retrace with grateful remembrance the kind manner in which he examined this scheme when it was but crude and imperfect; with a very capacious intellect, he had a warm and generous heart, causing him to think over with candour any new ideas placed before him. He was of the greatest use to me, by corroborating the points which I had gained. I remarked to him one day, "I find that, of the double tones, F# is a key-note and G? a root." He replied, "You must have a right foundation to work upon, or you would never have ascertained the necessity of the two poles; you have gained the double tones correctly, and the development of harmonies without limit. On this point I have always felt the failure of the laws followed by the musician." [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Dr. Gauntletts Remarks1, page 13]

Of course, true Art cannot be opposed to Nature, although all the rules of the musician are not the facts of Nature. Music, pure, natural, and harmonical, in the true and evident sense of the term, is the division of any key-note, or starting-point, into its integral and ultimate parts, and the descending divisions will always answer to the ascending, having reference to a general whole. The essence and mystery in the development of harmonies consist in the fact that every key-note, or unit, is a nucleus including the past, the present, and the future, having in itself an inherent power, with a tendency to expand and contract. In the natural system, as each series rises, its contents expand and fall back to the original limit from any point ascending or descending; we cannot perceive finality in any ultimate; every tone is related to higher and lower tones, and must be a part of an organised whole. It is well known how deeply the late Sir John Herschel studied this subject; and it was his opinion that there was some principle in the science of music which had yet to be discovered.[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Method of Development or Creation of Harmonies2, page 16]

I think it will be seen that most of the difficulties in the rules of harmony arise from not taking the key-note, with the six tones which it developes from itself, as guiding the ear, first to the six notes of its harmony, and then to the key-note which becomes the leader of the scale. In the study of the natural gamut, [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Method of Development or Creation of Harmonies2, page 16]

The diagram begins with C, the third space of the treble clef, as being more convenient to write than C, the lowest note in the bass clef. The life of musical sounds rising from a hidden fountain of life is shown by the chasms of keyed instruments between B and C, and E and F; their great use will be strikingly manifest as the developments proceed. The fundamental key-note C and its root F rise from the chasms. B, the twelfth key-note, and E, its root, sound the octave higher of the fountain B. The generation of harmonies is by one law a simple mode of difference. Each major major key-note and its tones embrace the eighteen tones of keyed instruments which all lie in order for use. The power and extent of each are complete in itself, rising and developing, not from any inherent property in matter, but from the life communicated to matter. In the whole process of harmony there are limits, and yet it is illimitable. Its laws compel each key-note to follow certain rules within certain bounds; each separate key-note, being the fountain of its own system, has its own point of rest, and series after series rise and enlarge, or fall and diminish infinitely. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram I - The Eighteen Tones of Keyed Instruments, page 22a]

A key-note developing its harmony may be compared to a seed striking its root downwards, and rising upwards. On striking a note, it sounds from within itself, in a rapid and subdued manner, the six kindred tones necessary to its harmony, and all which do not belong to that individual harmony are kept under; thus all harmonies are in sevens. Each seven forms an ascending and descending series; the ear is aware of the tones, but not of the order in which they rise. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram II - The Twelve Keynotes1, page 23]

The arrangement of a key-note and the six tones which it sounds may be simply explained by writing tones in a musical clef as notes. In this diagram we have the harmony of C and its root F. Both of these rise from the chasms, and hence this harmony is not so closely linked to that of B, and its root E, as to the other eleven harmonies. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram II - The Twelve Keynotes1, page 23]

The three lowest of the six tones are complementary pairs with the key-note and its two highest tones. Observe the curious order in which the tones sound, avoiding consecutive fifths. First, we have the key-note and its root, or fellow; next A; then D and its root; and then E, whose root, A, has already sounded between the first and the second pair. B, the fourth and central tone in depth, sounds seventh, and, finding no fellow within the compass of the harmony developing it, is isolated. Observe also how closely a key-note and its kindred tones are linked into each other. The Primaries spring from the key-notes, the Secondaries from the Primaries; the first pair comprises a key-note and a tone of the Primaries, the other two pairs have each a tone of the Primaries and a tone of the Secondaries. The key-note, after giving out its tones in trinities, or [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram II - The Twelve Keynotes1, page 23]

combinations of dissonance, rests, sounding neither scale nor chords. Dissonance does not express opposition or separation, for there is no principle in musical tones which is productive of contraries; the dissonances follow the attraction of the tonic, or key-note, and the neutralization of the musical disturbance is implied in the disagreement in their motion with the repose of the unit, or key-note. So far is this from producing separation, that the apparent discord is simply a preparation for growth, the life of harmony causing an inherent tendency towards closer union. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Combinations of dissonance, rests, page 24]

In any series of twelve, the primaries of the two first key-notes repeat the secondaries of the two last of a lower series of twelve; and the two last secondaries of the twelve in development are sounded as the two first primaries of a higher series of twelve. The three series are thus linked into each other. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Combinations of dissonance, rests, page 24]

THE first circle on this diagram represents seven major key-notes, beginning with C on the third space in the treble clef, and sounding as their roots the seven last key-notes which have developed. The second is a continuation of the first circle. The seven previously developed key-notes are now the roots of seven higher key-notes. The intermediate notes are not coloured, but may be seen to be complementary pairs. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram III - The Major Keynotes Developing by Sevens, page 25a]

In the progression of harmonies these are always closely linked into each other. If any key-note is taken as central, its root will be the fifth note of its harmony below, and it becomes in its turn the root of the fifth note above. If we add the silent notes, the root of the central note is the eighth below, and becomes the root of the eighth above. To explain the lower series of the notes sounding the six tones from within themselves, the only plan appeared to be to write the tones as notes in musical clef. By reference to Chapter V., we see that the lowest series still sound their tones, and lead the ear to the higher series of a key-note, and the six notes of its harmony, as they follow each other in trinities. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram III - The Major Keynotes Developing by Sevens, page 25a]

The second circle is a continuation of the first, shewing the 7 previously developed Key-notes are the roots of the 7 higher Key-notes. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The First Circle are 7 Keynotes, page 25c]

The Sevens of the Key-notes and their scales, the latter written also as they pair by fifths. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Sevens of the Keynotes, page 25e]

The twelve key-notes, with the six notes of each as they veer round in trinities, are again written in musical clef, and the scales added. The key-note leads the scale, and, after striking the two next highest notes of the seven of the harmony, goes forward, with its four lowest, an octave higher. The seven of each harmony have been traced as the three lowest, thus meeting the three highest in three pairs, the fourth note being isolated. Notwithstanding the curious reversal of the three and four of the scale, the three lowest pair with the three highest, and the fourth with its octave. The four pairs are written at the end of each line, and it will be seen how exactly they all agree in their mode of development. Keys with sharps and keys with flats are all mingled in twelve successive notes. If we strike the twelve scales ascending as they follow each other, each thirteenth note being octave of the first note of the twelve that have developed, and first of the rising series, the seventh time the scales gradually rise into the higher series of seven octaves beyond the power of the instrument. Descending is ascending reversed. After the seven and octave of a scale have been sounded ascending, the ear seems to lead to the descending; but ten notes of any scale may be struck without the necessity of modulation; at the seventh note we find that the eleventh note in the progression of harmonics rises to meet the seventh. For instance, B, the seventh note in the scale of C, must have F#. This point will be fully entered into when examining the meeting of fifths. To trace the scale of C veering round as an example for all, we may begin with C in Diagram II., and go forward with F, G, A, and B an octave higher. If the twelve scales were traced veering round, they would be found to correspond with the twelve as written in musical clef. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram IV - The Development of the Twelve Major Scales, page 26a]

The roots of the chords are first written. The Key-note C and its trinities are shewn to have 2 chords. The chords of the 12 Major Keys, as they follow in order. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Roots of the Chords, page 26c]

THE twelve keys have been traced following each other seven times through seven octaves, the keys mingled, the thirteenth note being the octave, and becoming first of each rising twelve. Thus developing, the seven notes of each eighth key were complementary pairs, with the seven notes of each eighth key below, and one series of the twelve keys may be traced, all meeting in succession, not mingled. When the notes not required for each of the twelve thus meeting are kept under, the eighths of the twelve all meet by fifths, and as before, in succession, each key increases by one sharp, the keys with flats following, each decreasing by one flat; after this, the octave of the first C would follow and begin a higher series. It is most interesting to trace the fourths, no longer isolated, but meeting each other, having risen through the progression of the keys to higher harmonies. In the seven of C, B is the isolated fourth, meeting F#, the isolated fourth in the key of G, and so on. Each ascending key-note becomes the root of the fifth key-note higher; thus C becomes the root of G, &c. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys1, page 29]

In the retrogression of harmonies, a key-note and its trinities, by sounding the same tones as when ascending, leads the ear to the same notes, and the root of each key-note becomes the fifth lower key-note. F, the root of C, becomes key-note; B?, the root of F, the next key-note, and so on. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys1, page 29]

The following table shows the regularity of each seven of the twelve key-notes ascending by fifths, and the use of the two poles is again seen. The key-notes and their trinities are closely linked into each other, the three highest notes of the lower fifth key becoming the three lowest of the higher fifth key, and the four lowest becoming the four highest in an octave higher. The twelve keys, rising in each note a tone higher and descending a tone lower, cause the meetings by fifths. Having examined the table, we may strike the keys by fifths as written in the musical clef, beginning with the lowest C in [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys1, page 29]

the bass clef, carrying each key-note a fifth higher or descending a fifth lower. A constant difficulty arises in explaining the development of tones and colours, from the fact that the ascending notes on a keyed instrument are descending lines in musical clef, and the ascending lines in musical clef in the retrogression of fifths must be gained by beginning below and following them upwards. They are therefore not repeated, either in the table or in musical clef, as descending. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys2, page 30]

[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys2, page 30]

In the development of the key-notes, the sharp or flat is written to each note, but not to the keys. The reversal of the three and four notes of each seven of the twelve key-notes and their trinities meeting by fifths having been traced, we will now examine the twelve scales meeting by fifths, and the results arising from the reversal of the three and four notes of each fifth lower scale in the fifth higher. Take as an example the scale of C: C D E F G A B, and that of G: G A B C D E F#. The four lowest notes of the seven of C are the four highest, an octave higher, in G; F, the central and isolated note of the seven of C, having risen a tone higher than the octave in the scale of G. The twelve scales thus modulate into each other by fifths, which sound the same harmonies as the key-notes and their trinities. Refer to the twelve scales written in musical clef ascending by fifths, and strike them, beginning at the lowest C in the bass clef; this scale sounds no intermediate tones, but these must be struck as required for all the scales to run on in fifths. After striking the seven notes of C, if we fall back three, and repeat them with the next four notes of the seven; or strike the seven and octave of C, and fall back four, repeating them and striking the next four, the four last notes of each scale will be found to be always in the harmony of the four first of the fifth higher scale. When the twelve scales ascending have been thus gained, as we trace them also on the table, they may be struck descending by following them as written in musical clef upwards, and [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys2, page 30]

Finally, trace the twelve keys by fifths as they veer round through the seven circles, each circle representing the eighteen tones. Beginning with C in the innermost circle ascending, C becomes the root of G, G of D, and so on. In descending, begin with C in the outermost circle (though really the first of a higher series which we have not the power of striking on instruments); F, its root, becomes the key-note, B? the root and then the key-note, and so on. The keys thus gained are written in musical clef below. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Twelve Scales Meeting by Fifths, page 31a]

The keys of C and G meeting are coloured, and show the beautiful results of colours arising from gradual progression when meeting by fifths. Each key-note and its trinities have been traced as complete in itself, and all knit into each other, the seven of each rising a tone and developing seven times through seven octaves, the keys mingled. The twelve scales have been traced, developing seven times through seven octaves, all knit into each other and into the key-notes and their trinities. The chords have also been traced, each complete in itself, and all knit into each other and into the key-notes, trinities, and scales. And lastly, one series of the twelve keys, no longer mingled, but modulating into each other, have been traced, closely linked into each other by fifths through seven octaves, three keys always meeting. Mark the number of notes thus linked together, and endeavour to imagine this number of tones meeting from the various notes. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Twelve Scales Meeting by Fifths, page 31a]

The 12 Major Keys meeting by fifths through 7 octaves; strike each Key-note, as having risen a fifth higher ascending, and fallen a fifth lower descending. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The 12 Major Keys Meeting by Fifths, page 31c]

Ascending, begin with C in the innermost circle, F being its root. The Key-note C becomes the root of G, G becomes the root of D, and so on. In descending, begin with the octave Key-note C in the outermost circle. F, the root of C, becomes the fifth lower Key-note. F is the next Key-note, and becomes the root of B?, &c. The 12 Keys in their order are written in musical clef below. Lastly, the Keys of C and G, ascending on a keyed instrument, are written in music as descending; therefore, to shew correctly notes and colours meeting, it is necessary to reverse them, and write C below G. All are seen to be complementary pairs in tones and colours. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII Continued2, page 31e]

AS an example of the twenty-four, compare A major, developing, in Diagram II., with A minor, Diagram IX., taking the notes in the order which they sound in trinities. The three notes of the primaries sounded by A minor are, first, the same root as the major; the two next are the fourth and seventh higher notes (in the major, the fifth and sixth); the secondaries only vary by the sixth and seventh notes being a tone lower than in their relative major. Observe the order in which the pairs unite; the fourth in depth, sounded seventh, isolated. A and its root do not rise from the chasms. The fundamental key-note C was seen not to be interfered with, neither is the fundamental minor key-note A; G# on the one side, and B? on the other, being the key-notes. The seven of each minor harmony embrace only seventeen tones. C major and A minor are the only two keys which sound the seven white notes of keyed instruments. The minor scale and chords of A are not included in this remark. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram IX - The Minor Keynote A and Its Six Notes, page 34a]

IN the first circle are represented seven minor key-notes, beginning with A on the second space in the treble clef, their roots being the seven last key-notes that have developed. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram X - Minor Keynotes Developing by Sevens, page 35a]

The second circle is a continuation of the first; the seven previously developed key-notes become, as before, the roots of seven higher. The uncoloured intermediate notes are in the same way complementary pairs. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram X - Minor Keynotes Developing by Sevens, page 35a]

The second circle is a continuation of the first, shewing the 7 previously developed Key-notes are the roots of the 7 higher Key-notes. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, First Circle are 7 Minor Keynotes, page 35c]

THE same laws are followed here as in the development of the major scales. In that of A, F, the sixth note, has risen to F#, in order to meet B, which has previously sounded. In descending, the seventh note, B, falls to B?, in order to meet F, which has also previously sounded. The notes, ascending or descending, always follow the harmony of their key-note, except when rising higher or falling lower to meet in fifths. We may here trace the twelve, the ascending scale sounding the fifth harmony higher than its key-note, and, in descending, sounding the fifth lower harmony. The four pairs of each scale are written at the end of the lines. If we strike the twelve scales as they follow in succession, the thirteenth note being the octave of the first, and leader of a higher twelve; having gained them six times, at the seventh they gradually rise (though beyond the power of a keyed instrument) into the higher series of seven octaves, and again, in descending, they fall lower, and are linked into the lower series of seven octaves. Nine notes of any ascending minor scale may be struck without the necessity of modulating beyond the fifth harmony. For example, in the scale of A, its tenth note, C#, rises to meet the sixth note, which has previously sounded. In descending, E?, the eleventh note, meets B?, the seventh note, which has previously sounded. The scale of A may be traced veering round by reference to Diagram IX., beginning with A, and carrying the four lowest notes an octave higher, F rising to F# in ascending, B falling to B? in descending. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XI - The Twelve Minor Keynotes with the Six Note of Each, page 36a]

ALTHOUGH only twelve notes of a keyed instrument develope perfect minor harmonics, there are fifteen different chords, the double tones D#-E?, E#-F?, A#-B? all sounding as roots. The fifteen roots are written in musical clef. A major and a minor fifth embrace the same number of key-notes, but the division into threefold chords is different. In counting the twelve, a major fifth has four below the third note of its harmony, and three above it; a minor fifth has three below the third note of its harmony, and four above it. A major seventh includes twelve key-notes, a minor seventh only eleven. As an example of the minor chords in the different keys, we may first examine those in the key of A, written in musical clef. The seven of its harmony have two threefold chords, and two of its ascending scale. If we include the octave note, the highest chord of the descending scale is a repetition (sounding an octave higher) of the lowest chord of the seven in its harmony, and the second chord of the descending scale is a repetition of the first chord of its ascending scale. These two repetition chords are only written to the key of A: the chords of the other eleven keys will all be found exactly to agree with those of A in their mode of development. We may again remark on the beautiful effect which would result if the colours of the minor chords could be seen, with the tones, as they develope. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XII - The Chords of the Twelve Minor Keys, page 37a]

IF we strike the twelve as written in musical clef, beginning with the lowest A in the bass clef, each key-note, with its trinities, scale, and chords, sounds three harmonics. We may follow with the twelve keys as they rise, and descend by following the keys upwards as written in musical clef, each key falling lower. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XIII - The Twelve Keynotes with Their Trinities, page 38a]

BEGINNING with the lowest A in the bass clef, let us strike the trinities, scale, and chords, carrying each key-note a fifth higher, counting the seven belonging to its harmony. If the silent notes are included, each fifth is the eighth meeting. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XIV - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Minor Keys by Fifths1, page 39]

If we strike the ascending scales as written in musical clef again, beginning with the lowest A in the bass clef, we see that the second and sixth notes of each scale meet in higher harmony; the sharp or flat of the scale which varies from the seven notes of its harmony is written to each note. We descend as written in musical clef upwards; each third and seventh note meet in lower harmony, and thus all exactly agree in their mode of development. Having examined the scales as written in the table below, where the sharp or flat as before is marked to each note, but not to the keys, let us strike the key-notes, trinities, scales, and chords. The three harmonies of each key are written at the end of each line of musical clef. To descend, we follow the musical clef upwards, as before. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XIV - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Minor Keys by Fifths2, page 40]

Ascending, begin with A in the innermost circle, D being its root. The Key-note A becomes the root of E, E becomes the root of B, and so on. Descending, take the Key-note A in the outermost circle. D, the root of A, becomes the fifth lower Key-note, and G its root, and then G becomes the Key-note, and C its root. The same remarks concerning the writing of the meeting fifths, which are made below the corresponding diagram of the major gamut, apply to this one. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram Shews the Modulating of the 12 Minor Keys, page 41e]

TO recapitulate from the beginning, observe, firstly, the twelve major key-notes as they have developed from within themselves in succession, six tones in trinities seven times through seven octaves, each thirteenth note being the octave of the first note of the twelve that have developed, and being also the first of the higher series. We may retrace all as still sounding their tones, the key-notes leading the ear to the six notes of each harmony, the keys with sharps and those with flats being mingled. The ascending and descending scales always agree in their harmonies with the key-notes and their trinities. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XV - The Twelve Major and the Twelve Minor Keys, page 42a]

In the Minor Scale, the Trinities and Scale develope five pairs; the last pair become the fifth higher key-note and its root, consequently the sixth pair would develope the higher key.[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Seven of each Harmony with its Scale, page 59]

Remark the three-fold chord of the Trinity, the highest note is the key-note; and in the three-fold chord of the Scale, the key-note is the lowest note. These are the only two chords in each Minor key. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Roots of the Minor Chords, page 61]

The Keynote
"All matter, living and inanimate, has a keynote. Claude Bragdon the architect, who practiced yoga, invited the opera singer Marie Russak to the New York Central Station which he had designed, before it was opened to the public. 'As she stood in the gallery.' says Bragdon, 'she ran up the notes on the diatonic scale in her rich, powerful voice. At the utterance of a certain note the entire room seemed to become a great resonance chamber, reinforcing the tone with a volume of sound so great as to be almost overpowering. The walls, ceiling and the entire building seemed to shout aloud.

'"There!" cried the singer as the sound died away in overtones. "Now your building has found its keynote - it's alive!" [Harvey Day, "The Hidden Power of Vibration"]