"In related scales there is no case in which a note serves for more than four major and three minor, or four minor and three major keys;1 but Mr. Taylor makes B with the number 495 serve for six major scales. Forming the scales as he did from the notes of C, instead of the proper progression of scales, makes all the notes of the scales of A, E, and B major a comma too low for the scales of F, C, G, and D; and likewise, all the notes of the scales of D, G, C, and F minor a comma to high for the scales of A, E, and B. All the minor sevenths are a comma too low for their tonic notes. But as D, G, C, and F are a comma to high, if the tonic notes were right these four sevenths would be right with their present numbers. The other three scales, A, E, and B, which begin on their proper numbers, have their sevenths a comma too low." [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 14]

"lower effect than the fifth; the seventh, B, has a higher effect than the sixth; but the eighth, C, has a lower effect than the seventh. If the effects of notes or chords depended wholly on the mathematical primes by which they are measured and located, or the ratios inherent in them, then the effects of the tonic, subdominant, and dominant chords would have been alike, for these chords are measured by exactly the same primes, and have exactly the same ratios. It is the position of the tonic chord which gives it its importance and not any special primes by which it is produced, nor any special ratios inherent in it. Notes by the power of 2 have a pure unmixed and invariable character. Notes by the first, second, and third powers of 3 have different degrees of centrifugal force; and the character of the notes produced by the first power of 5 depends on the character of the notes from which they are derived. The final character of notes and chords is determined by the amount of force which they have acquired from the way in which they have been derived, and from their position in the system. And no matter where these notes may be afterwards placed, like chemical elements, they never lose their original forces and tendencies. What Tyndal says of the inorganic chemical elements of the brain is true of the inorganic notes of music, "They are all dead as grains of shot." It is the organic state which gives the notes and chords their gravities and (levity|levities, and these two tendencies, the one upward and the other downward, constitute the vital principle of music. It is true that the mathematical operation is required to give birth and life to music, and that the mathematical system gives the knowledge of causes down to the law of gravitation, yet the artistic effects are fully realised from the tempered system deriving its organic harmony from this vital principle of music. The centrifugal tendencies of the notes of the subdominant, are too strong to be at all disturbed by the system being tempered. The enormous power of these chords corrects the effect which might otherwise arise from tempering, as the enormous power of the sun corrects the perturbations of the planets." [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 29]

In the progression - that is, the going on from one to another - of these triplets in harmonizing the octave scale ascending, Nature goes on normally till we come to the passage from the sixth to the seventh note of the scale, whose two chords have no note in common, and a new step has to be taken to link them together. And here the true way is to follow the method of Nature in the birthplace of chords.1 The root of the subdominant chord, to which the sixth of the octave scale belongs, which then becomes a 4-note chord, and is called the dominant seventh; F, the root of the subdominant F, A, C, is added to G, B, D, the notes of the dominant, which then becomes G, B, D, F; the two chords have now a note in common, and can pass on to the end of the octave scale normally. In going down the octave scale with harmony, the passage from the seventh to the sixth, where this break exists, meets us at the very second step; but following Nature's method again, the top of the dominant goes over to the root of the subdominant, and F, A, C, which has no note in common with G, B, D, becomes D, F, A, C, and is called the subdominant sixth; and continuity being thus established, the harmony then passes on normally to the bottom of the scale, every successive chord being linked to the preceding note by a note in common. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 49]

where there stands an open door between the sixth and the seventh, these two having no note in common, it is easy and natural to slip out of the key into another, either in ascending the major or descending the minor octave; and in order to keep in the key, the two chords of these notes have to reach out to each other a helping hand, and compound in order to affiliate. This, however, by the law of sympathy and assimilation, which reigns in this happy, realm, they are always ready to do.1 [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 66]

third; and in order to do so, A has been mathematically raised a comma, which makes G A B now a 9-8 comma third. E F G, which in the scale of C was a 5-9 comma third, must now take the place of A B C in the scale of C, which was a 9-5 comma third; and in order to do so, F is mathematically raised 4 commas, and must be marked F#; and now the interval is right for the scale of G. E F# G is a 9-5 comma interval. This mathematical process, in the majors, puts every scale in its original form as to vibration-numbers; but since the same letters are kept for the naming of the notes, they must be marked with commas or sharps, as the case may be. In the Sol Fa notation such marks would not be necessary, as Do is always the key-note, Ray always the second, and Te always the seventh. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 83]

dominant; and either of these chords may also follow the tonic; but when the dominant follows the subdominant, as they have no note in common, the root of the subdominant is added to the dominant chord, and this forms the dominant seventh; and when the subdominant follows the dominant, the top of the dominant is added to the subdominant, and this forms the subdominant sixth. The sixth and seventh of the octave scale is the only place these two compound chords are positively required; but from their modifying and resolvable character they are very generally used. When the dominant is compounded by having the root of the subdominant, its specific effect is considerably lower; and when the subdominant is compounded by having the top of the dominant, its specific effect is considerably higher. In the octave scale the notes of the subdominant and dominant chords are placed round the notes of the tonic chord in such a way was to give the greatest amount of contrast between their notes and the tonic notes. In the tonic chord the note which has the greatest amount of specific gravity is its root; and in the octave scale it has below it the middle and above it the top of the dominant, the two notes which have the greatest amount of specific levity; and in the octave scale it has above it the middle and below it the root of the subdominant - the two notes which the greatest amount of specific gravity. The third note of the scale, the middle of the tonic chord, is the center of the system, and is the note which has the least tendency either upwards or downwards, and it has above it the root of the subdominant, the note which has the greatest amount of specific gravity, and it has below it the top of the dominant, the note which has the greatest amount of specific levity. Thus the root of the subdominant is placed above, and the top of the dominant below, the center of the system; the specific gravity of the one above and the specific levity of the one below cause them to move in the direction of the center. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 98]

It is very interesting to observe how the number seven, which is excluded from the genesis of the system of vibration, comes into view after the genesis is completed, not only in the seven seconds of the melodic scale, but also in the seven of each of the intervals. As there are seven days in the week, though the seventh was only after the genesis of creation was finished, so there are six intervals, but seven of each, as we have seen; and in each 7-fold group three magnitudes determined by the three genetic magnitudes of the seconds. There is much symbolic meaning in all this. Any of the intervals may be used in melody; in harmony also, either in simple or compound chords, they all have the honor of fulfilling a part; and even those, such as seconds and sevenths, which are less honorable in themselves, have great honor in compound chords, such as dominant sevenths and compound tonics, which fulfill exceedingly interesting functions in the society of chords. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 110]

given to this scale, as the D of A minor would be a comma too low; it would make a 9-comma interval between D and E, the seventh and eighth, where the minor mode has an 8-comma one. So its two new notes are thus found in the relative and sub-relative majors. This is the way of their mutual providing in the region of the #s; the # seventh of the major is given to be the # second of the minor, and the comma-higher second of the sub-relative becomes the seventh of the minor; and then we have a true written representation of what Nature has done. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 113]

When Plate XIII. is divided up the middle of the column, as in Plate XIV., so as that one side may be slipped up a fifth, representing a new key one-fifth higher, its subdominant made to face the old tonic, the two new notes are then pictorially shown, the second being altered one comma and the seventh four commas. The key at this new and higher pitch is by Nature's unfailing care kept precisely in the same form as the first; and wherever the major scale is pitched, higher or lower, the form remains unaltered, all the intervals arranging themselves in the same order. The ear, and the voice obedient to it, carry Nature's measuring-rule in them, and the writing must use such marks as may truly represent this; hence the use of sharps, flats, and naturals; these, however, be it observed, are only marks in the writing; all is natural at any pitch in the scale itself. All this is equally true of the minor mode at various pitches. These two plates are only another and more pictorial way of showing what the stave and the signature are usually made to express. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 114]

This quotation on vibrations will be seen to agree with the laws which I have gained. The fact that six of the notes of keyed instruments are obliged to act two parts, must prevent the intermediate notes bearing a definite ratio of vibrations with the intermediate colours of the spectrum. I name the note A as violet, and B ultra-violet, as it seemed to me clearer not to mention the seventh as a colour. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, On Colours as Developed by the same Laws as Musical Harmonies2, page 19]

The three lowest of the six tones are complementary pairs with the key-note and its two highest tones. Observe the curious order in which the tones sound, avoiding consecutive fifths. First, we have the key-note and its root, or fellow; next A; then D and its root; and then E, whose root, A, has already sounded between the first and the second pair. B, the fourth and central tone in depth, sounds seventh, and, finding no fellow within the compass of the harmony developing it, is isolated. Observe also how closely a key-note and its kindred tones are linked into each other. The Primaries spring from the key-notes, the Secondaries from the Primaries; the first pair comprises a key-note and a tone of the Primaries, the other two pairs have each a tone of the Primaries and a tone of the Secondaries. The key-note, after giving out its tones in trinities, or [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram II - The Twelve Keynotes1, page 23]

We here trace the twelve harmonies developing in succession. Notice how exactly they all agree in their mode of development; also the use of the chasms between E and F, B and C. Remark also the beautiful results from the working of the double tones, especially C#-D♭, and E#-F♭, causing the seven tones of each harmony, when ascending, to rise one tone, and, descending, to reverse this movement. F#-G♭ is the only double tone which acts as F# when a key-tone, and G♭ when the root of D♭. The root of each harmony is the sixth and highest tone in each succeeding harmony, rising one octave; when it is a double tone, it sounds according to the necessity of the harmony. The intermediate tones are here coloured, showing gradual modulation. The isolated fourths (sounding sevenths) were the previously developed key-tones; these also alter when they are double tones, according to the necessity of the harmony. Beginning with B, the isolated fourth in the harmony of C, the tones sound the twelve notes of a keyed instrument, E# being F♮, and the double tones, some flats, some sharps. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Combinations of dissonance, rests, page 24]

In the musical clef, the sixth and seventh notes from the fundamental key-note C (F and #F) are repeated, so that the use of the two poles (#F and ♭G) may be clearly seen, and that the notes and colours precisely agree. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram III - The Major Keynotes Developing by Sevens, page 25a]

The twelve key-notes, with the six notes of each as they veer round in trinities, are again written in musical clef, and the scales added. The key-note leads the scale, and, after striking the two next highest notes of the seven of the harmony, goes forward, with its four lowest, an octave higher. The seven of each harmony have been traced as the three lowest, thus meeting the three highest in three pairs, the fourth note being isolated. Notwithstanding the curious reversal of the three and four of the scale, the three lowest pair with the three highest, and the fourth with its octave. The four pairs are written at the end of each line, and it will be seen how exactly they all agree in their mode of development. Keys with sharps and keys with flats are all mingled in twelve successive notes. If we strike the twelve scales ascending as they follow each other, each thirteenth note being octave of the first note of the twelve that have developed, and first of the rising series, the seventh time the scales gradually rise into the higher series of seven octaves beyond the power of the instrument. Descending is ascending reversed. After the seven and octave of a scale have been sounded ascending, the ear seems to lead to the descending; but ten notes of any scale may be struck without the necessity of modulation; at the seventh note we find that the eleventh note in the progression of harmonics rises to meet the seventh. For instance, B, the seventh note in the scale of C, must have F#. This point will be fully entered into when examining the meeting of fifths. To trace the scale of C veering round as an example for all, we may begin with C in Diagram II., and go forward with F, G, A, and B an octave higher. If the twelve scales were traced veering round, they would be found to correspond with the twelve as written in musical clef. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram IV - The Development of the Twelve Major Scales, page 26a]

IF we strike the twelve keys of harmonies in trinities, scales, and chords, as written in musical clef, beginning with the lowest C in the bass clef, this first development is linked into the lower series of seven octaves by the four lower tones sounded by C. If we follow with the twelve keys six times, at the seventh time they will gradually rise into the higher series. We obtain a glimpse of the beauty arising from musical notes in the Pendulograph. How exquisite would they be if they could be represented in their natural coloured tones! — as, for instance, the chord of the scale of C in red, yellow, and blue, with the six coloured tones rising from each, and harmoniously blended into each other. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Twelve Keys Rising Seven Times, page 28a]

AS an example of the twenty-four, compare A major, developing, in Diagram II., with A minor, Diagram IX., taking the notes in the order which they sound in trinities. The three notes of the primaries sounded by A minor are, first, the same root as the major; the two next are the fourth and seventh higher notes (in the major, the fifth and sixth); the secondaries only vary by the sixth and seventh notes being a tone lower than in their relative major. Observe the order in which the pairs unite; the fourth in depth, sounded seventh, isolated. A and its root do not rise from the chasms. The fundamental key-note C was seen not to be interfered with, neither is the fundamental minor key-note A; G# on the one side, and B♭ on the other, being the key-notes. The seven of each minor harmony embrace only seventeen tones. C major and A minor are the only two keys which sound the seven white notes of keyed instruments. The minor scale and chords of A are not included in this remark. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram IX - The Minor Keynote A and Its Six Notes, page 34a]

THE same laws are followed here as in the development of the major scales. In that of A, F, the sixth note, has risen to F#, in order to meet B, which has previously sounded. In descending, the seventh note, B, falls to B♭, in order to meet F, which has also previously sounded. The notes, ascending or descending, always follow the harmony of their key-note, except when rising higher or falling lower to meet in fifths. We may here trace the twelve, the ascending scale sounding the fifth harmony higher than its key-note, and, in descending, sounding the fifth lower harmony. The four pairs of each scale are written at the end of the lines. If we strike the twelve scales as they follow in succession, the thirteenth note being the octave of the first, and leader of a higher twelve; having gained them six times, at the seventh they gradually rise (though beyond the power of a keyed instrument) into the higher series of seven octaves, and again, in descending, they fall lower, and are linked into the lower series of seven octaves. Nine notes of any ascending minor scale may be struck without the necessity of modulating beyond the fifth harmony. For example, in the scale of A, its tenth note, C#, rises to meet the sixth note, which has previously sounded. In descending, E♭, the eleventh note, meets B♭, the seventh note, which has previously sounded. The scale of A may be traced veering round by reference to Diagram IX., beginning with A, and carrying the four lowest notes an octave higher, F rising to F# in ascending, B falling to B♭ in descending. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XI - The Twelve Minor Keynotes with the Six Note of Each, page 36a]

sixth note, which would be Creation perfected, without entering upon the fifth higher key; and it cannot sound the seventh falling into the octave without discord. Therefore the eighth note is not the octave of the first, as it is the fourth note of the fifth higher key. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Supplementary Remarks, page 54]

James Furia
The revolution period of Mars divided by the revolution period of Earth equals an interval in music called a major 7th. It is amazing to me that when dividing the two planets diameters I got the same interval.

The diameter of Mars divided by 19.5 (key latitude of major up welling in all planets) = 216 (moon)

The Earth's solar year X the Mars diameter = 1533168 (two highly important numbers in sacred geometry: 153 and 3168)

The Mars diameter divided by the Earth's diameter = exactly one half of 1.059 (one half step in music)

These equations are analogous to the trademark of the ancient pyramid builders who incorporated such astronomical numbers as 25,920 (years in the great cycle or precession of the equinoxes) in their monuments. Notice their trademark which is to have the half step represented as half 1.059 and to show this interval in multiple ways. It's very simple if you follow their logic; a half step in music IS the major 7th! Starting on any root note, going down one half step is the root note's major 7th. Example: Root note "C". Down one half step is "B". Up a major 7th is also "B" .

Mars / Earth and Earth / Mars, show us the same interval with their diameters and rotation/revolution periods. Are these observations random? Or could it be revealing sciences of sympathetic vibratory physics that we yet to fully understand. The universe is made of the same vibrations it harmonically displays. The harmonics of our solar system reflect the cyclical nature of vibration and atoms, and music plays a leading role. [James Furia, 1999]

See Also

7.16 - Seventh
diminished seventh
dominant seventh
law of seven
major seventeenth
Major Seventh
Minor Seventh
seven churches
seventh note
seven octaves
seven seconds
seven sevenths
seven sixths
seven Spirits
seven thirds
seventh subdivision
sharp seventh
top of the seventh octave
Twenty-seven depolar triple groupings

Created by Dale Pond. Last Modification: Saturday April 10, 2021 05:19:21 MDT by Dale Pond.