# G flat

Ramsay
The difference between B# and C? is the apotome minor - a very small difference - and this can only occur in the mathematical scales. In tempered scales, such as are played on the piano, one key serves equally well for both. Although seven sharps may be employed, seven black keys are necessary. As F# and G? have the same relation to each other as B# and C?, and as B# does not require a black key but is found on a white one, so all the semitonic necessities for twelve tempered scales are fully supplied by 5 black keys, since the white keys are as much semitonic as the black ones. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 80]

The reason why there are 13 mathematical scales is that G? and F# are written separately as two scales, although the one is only a comma and the apotome minor higher than the other, while in the regular succession of scales the one is always 5 notes higher than the other; so this G? is an anomaly among scales, unless viewed as the first of a second cycle of keys, which it really is; and all the notes of all the scales of this second cycle are equally a comma and the apotome higher than the notes of the first cycle; and when followed out we find that a third cycle is raised just as much higher than the second as the second is higher than the first; and what is true of these majors may be simply repeated as to the D# and E? of the minors, and the new cycle so begun, and all successive minor cycles. Twelve and not thirteen is the natural number for the mathematical scales, which go on in a spiral line, as truly as for the tempered scales, which close as a circle at this point. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 89]

In a similar and responsive way Duality provides for the six major scales with flats.
The two new notes required for the scale of
F major are the B? of D, and the D of A minor;
for B? major, the E? of G, and the G of D minor;
for E? major, the A? of C, and the C of G minor;
for A? major, the D? of F, and the F of C minor;
for D? major, the G? of B?, and the B? of F minor;
for G? major, the C? of E?, and the E? of B? minor.1 [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 90]

sexual note in the scales of G major and E minor are the two A's; in D major and B minor, the two E's; in A major and F# minor, the two B's; in E major and C# minor, the two F's; in B major and G# minor, the two C's; and in F# major and D# minor, the two G's. These two last scales being the beginning of a second cycle of twelve scales when the scales are written half in flats and half in sharps, as we have done them in this case. Turning to the other half of our circle, those which we have, and which usually in music books are, written in flats, in F major and D minor the sexual notes are the two G's; in B? and G, the two C's, in E? and C, the two F's; in A? and F, the two B's; in D? and B?, the two E's; and in G? and E?, the two A's. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 91]

The Plate shows the Twelve Major and Minor Scales, with the three chords of their harmony - subdominant, tonic, and dominant; the tonic chord being always the center one. The straight lines of the three squares inside the stave embrace the chords of the major scales, which are read toward the right; e.g., F, C, G - these are the roots of the three chords F A C, C E G, G B D. The tonic chord of the scale of C becomes the subdominant chord of the scale of G, etc., all round. The curved lines of the ellipse embrace the three chords of the successive scales; e.g., D, A, E - these are the roots of the three chords D F A, A C E, E G B. The tonic chord of the scale of A becomes the subdominant of the scale of E, etc., all round. The sixth scale of the Majors may be written B with 5 sharps, and then is followed by F with 6 sharps, and this by C with 7 sharps, and so on all in sharps; and in this case the twelfth key would be E with 11 sharps; but, to simplify the signature, at B we can change the writing into C, this would be followed by G with 6 flats, and then the signature dropping one flat at every new key becomes a simpler expression; and at the twelfth key, instead of E with 11 sharps we have F with only one flat. Similarly, the Minors make a change from sharps to flats; and at the twelfth key, instead of C with 11 sharps we have D with one flat. The young student, for whose help these pictorial illustrations are chiefly prepared, must observe, however, that this is only a matter of musical orthography, and does not practically affect the music itself. When he comes to the study of the mathematical scales, he will be brought in sight of the exact very small difference between this B and C?, or this F# and G?; but meanwhile there is no difference for him. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 108]

One purpose of this plate is to show that twelve times the interval of a fifth divides the octave into twelve semitones; and each of these twelve notes is the first note of a major and a minor scale. When the same note has two names, the one has sharps and the other has flats. The number of sharps and flats taken together is always twelve. In this plate will also be observed an exhibition of the omnipresence of the chromatic chords among the twice twelve scales. The staff in the center of the plate is also used as to show the whole 24 scales. Going from the major end, the winding line, advancing by fifths, goes through all the twelve keys notes; but in order to keep all within the staff, a double expedient is resorted to. Instead of starting from C0, the line starts from the subdominant F0, that is, one key lower, and then following the line we have C1, G2, etc., B6 proceeds to G? instead of F#, but the signature-number continues still to indicate as if the keys went on in sharps up to F12, where the winding line ends. Going from the minor end, the line starts from E0 instead of A0 - that is, it starts from the dominant of A0, or one key in advance. Then following the line we have B1, F#2, etc. When we come to D#5, we proceed to B? instead of A#6, but the signature-number continues as if still in sharps up [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 114]

SYSTEM OF THE THREE PRIMITIVE CHROMATIC CHORDS.

The middle portion with the zigzag and perpendicular lines are the chromatic chords, as it were arpeggio'd. They are shown 5-fold, and have their major form from the right side, and their minor form from the left. In the column on the right they are seen in resolution, in their primary and fullest manner, with the 12 minors. The reason why there are 13 scales, though called the 12, is that F# is one scale and G? another on the major side; and D# and E? separated the same way on the minor side. Twelve, however, is the natural number for the mathematical scales as well as the tempered ones. But as the mathematical scales roll on in cycles, F# is mathematically the first of a new cycle, and all the notes of the scale of F# are a comma and the apotome minor higher than G?. And so also it is on the minor side, D# is a comma and the apotome higher than E?. These two thirteenth keys are therefore simply a repetition of the two first; a fourteenth would be a repetition of the second; and so on all through till a second cycle of twelve would be completed; and the thirteenth to it would be just the first of a third cycle a comma and the apotome minor higher than the second, and so on ad infinitum. In the tempered scales F# and G? on the major side are made one; and D# and E? on the minor side the same; and the circle of the twelve is closed. This is the explanation of the thirteen in any of the plates being called twelve. The perpendicular lines join identical notes with diverse names. The zigzag lines thread the rising Fifths which constitute the chromatic chords under diverse names, and these chords are then seen in stave-notation, or the major and minor sides opposites. The system of the Secondary and Tertiary manner of resolution might be shown in the same way, thus exhibiting 72 resolutions into Tonic chords. But the Chromatic chord can also be used to resolve to the Subdominant and Dominant chords of each of these 24 keys, which will exhibit 48 more chromatic resolutions; and resolving into the 48 chords in the primary, secondary, and tertiary manners, will make 144 resolutions, which with 72 above make 216 resolutions. These have been worked out by our author in the Common Notation, in a variety of positions and inversions, and may be published, perhaps, in a second edition of this work, or in a practical work by themselves. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 115]

PLATES XVII. & XVIII.

These two plates show the chromatic chord resolving into the twelve major and twelve minor tonic chords of the twenty-four scales. There seems to be twenty-five, but that arises from making G? and F# in the major two scales, whereas they are really only one; and the same in the minor series, E? and D# are really one scale. C in the major and A in the minor, which occur in the middle of the series, when both sharps and flats are employed in the signatures, are placed below and outside of the circular stave to give them prominence as the types of the scale; and the first chromatic chord is seen with them in its major and minor form, and its typical manner of resolving - the major form rising to the root, and falling to the top and middle; the minor form falling to the top, and rising to the root and middle. The signatures of the keys are given under the stave. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 116]

advance by semitones, the keys with ?s and #s alternate in both modes. The open between G# and A? in the major, and between D# and E? in the minor, is closed in each mode, and the scale made one. The dotted lines across the plate lead from major to relative minor; and the solid spiral line starting from C, and winding left and right, touches the consecutive keys as they advance normally, because genetically, by fifths. The relative major and minor are in one ellipse at C and A; and in the ellipse right opposite this the relative to F# is D#, and that of G? and E?, all in the same ellipse, and by one set of notes, but read, of course, both ways. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 117]

The inner stave contains the chromatic scale of twelve notes as played on keyed instruments. The flat and sharp phase of the intermediate notes are both given to indicate their relation to each other; the sharpened note being always the higher one, although seemingly on the stave the lower one. The two notes are the apotome minor apart overlapping each other by so much; ?D is the apotome lower than C#; ?E the apotome lower than D#; F# the apotome higher than ?G; G# the apotome higher than ?A; and A# the apotome higher than ?B. The figures for the chromatic scale are only given for the notes and their sharps; but in the mathematical series of notes the numbers are all given. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 120]

Hughes
The key-note C sounding from within itself its six tones to and fro in trinities, the tones written as notes in musical clef
—The trinities hereafter termed primaries and secondaries
—The seven of each of the twelve key notes developing their tones
—The order in which the tones meet, avoiding consecutive fifths
Dissonance is not opposition or separation
—The use of the chasms and double tones is seen
—The isolated fourths sound the twelve notes
—Each double tone developes only one perfect major harmony, with the exception of F#-G?; F# as the key-tone sounds F? as E#, and G? as the key-tone sounds B? as C?
—The primaries of the twelve key-notes are shown to sound the same tones as the secondaries of each third harmony below, but in a different order

Major key-notes developing by sevens veering round and advancing and retiring in musical clef
—The use of the two poles F#-G? in tones and colours
—Retrace from Chapter V. the tones in musical clef as notes, each note still sounding its tones, leading the ear to its harmony, . . 25 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents2 - Harmonies]

whether veering round, or advancing and retreating in musical clef. I next tried the major keys which develope flats, and I thought that G? would develope a perfect harmony, but found that it must be F#, and that in this one harmony E# must be used in place of F?; on reference, I found that thus the twelve keys developed correctly in succession, the thirteenth being the octave, or first of a higher series. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Dr. Gauntletts Remarks1, page 13]

In a few remarks on "Tones and Colours," inserted in the Athenæum of February 24, 1877, I alluded to the great loss I had sustained by the sudden death of Dr. Gauntlett. I often retrace with grateful remembrance the kind manner in which he examined this scheme when it was but crude and imperfect; with a very capacious intellect, he had a warm and generous heart, causing him to think over with candour any new ideas placed before him. He was of the greatest use to me, by corroborating the points which I had gained. I remarked to him one day, "I find that, of the double tones, F# is a key-note and G? a root." He replied, "You must have a right foundation to work upon, or you would never have ascertained the necessity of the two poles; you have gained the double tones correctly, and the development of harmonies without limit. On this point I have always felt the failure of the laws followed by the musician." [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Dr. Gauntletts Remarks1, page 13]

The 18 tones of keyed instruments are represented round this circle, and again below in musical clef. As all, with the exception of G? and A#, become in turn either Major or Minor Key-notes, or both, no distinction is made between tones and semitones throughout the scheme. In this diagram the 12 Major Key-notes are written thus

[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram I - Eighteen Tones of Keyed Instruments, page 22c]

We here trace the twelve harmonies developing in succession. Notice how exactly they all agree in their mode of development; also the use of the chasms between E and F, B and C. Remark also the beautiful results from the working of the double tones, especially C#-D?, and E#-F?, causing the seven tones of each harmony, when ascending, to rise one tone, and, descending, to reverse this movement. F#-G? is the only double tone which acts as F# when a key-tone, and G? when the root of D?. The root of each harmony is the sixth and highest tone in each succeeding harmony, rising one octave; when it is a double tone, it sounds according to the necessity of the harmony. The intermediate tones are here coloured, showing gradual modulation. The isolated fourths (sounding sevenths) were the previously developed key-tones; these also alter when they are double tones, according to the necessity of the harmony. Beginning with B, the isolated fourth in the harmony of C, the tones sound the twelve notes of a keyed instrument, E# being F?, and the double tones, some flats, some sharps. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Combinations of dissonance, rests, page 24]

The only exception is the double tone F#-G?, which is a curious study. F# as a harmony takes the double tones as sharps, and F? is E#. G? is also a harmony sounding the same tones, by taking the double tones as flats, and B? as C?. F# therefore takes the imperfect tone of E#, and G? the imperfect tone of C?. (See here the harmony of G? in musical clef.) [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Combinations of dissonance, rests, page 24]

The Major Key-note of C is here shewn developing its trinities from within itself, veering round; C and the other 11 developing their trinities in musical clef. Below each is the order in which the pairs meet, avoiding consecutive fifths. Lastly, C# is seen to be an imperfect major harmony; and G?, with B as C?, make the same harmony as F#. The intermediate tones of sharps and flats of the 7 white notes are here coloured in order to shew each harmony, but it must be remembered that they should, strictly, have intermediate tints. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Major Keynote of C, page 24c]

In the musical clef, the sixth and seventh notes from the fundamental key-note C (F and #F) are repeated, so that the use of the two poles (#F and ?G) may be clearly seen, and that the notes and colours precisely agree. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram III - The Major Keynotes Developing by Sevens, page 25a]

Below, the 6th and 7th Key-notes are repeated, to shew the use of the poles F#, G?. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The First Circle are 7 Keynotes, page 25c]

ON a keyed instrument only twelve are major key-notes, but as the double tones C#-D? and F#-G? are roots, there are fourteen different chords. The fourteen that are roots are written in musical clef. As an example of the major chords in the different keys, we may examine those in the key of C. A major fifth includes five out of the seven of its key; with the third or central note it is the threefold chord, or fourfold when the octave note is added. Including the silent key-notes, a threefold chord embraces eight, or, counting the double tones, not including E#, eleven. The first and second chords of the seven of the harmony are perfect major chords in the key of C; the central note of the third chord, being #C-?D, is a discord. The first pair of fifths in the scale, with its central note, is a chord of the key; if we include the octave, the last pair of fifths, with its central note, is the same chord an octave higher than the lowest chord of the seven. Of the chords written in musical clef of the twelve keys, the octave chord is only written to C, the seven of each having two chords and the scale one, thirty-six in all, or forty-eight if the octave chords are added. Notice how the chords of each seven and the chord of its scale are altered. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram V - The Chords of the Twelve Major Keys, page 27a]

[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys2, page 30]

[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Twelve Scales Meeting by Fifths, page 31a]