# Fifths

Ramsay
The larger hemisphere of the Fifths is uppermost when taking the minor view of the plate, and suggests the idea of the minor being weighed downward, as it really is mathematically in the genesis of the scale, which is seen in the D of the minor being a comma lower than the D of the major. Taking the major view of the plate, the smaller hemisphere is uppermost, and suggest the idea of rising upward, as it really does in the[Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 106]

mathematical genesis, as seen in its D being a comma higher than that of the minor. This gravity and buoyancy of the modes is a striking feature of them. In the Thirds it is different from the Fifths; the larger hemisphere of each third seems gravitating toward the center of the tonic chord. The area of the scale has then the aspect of a planet with its north and south poles, and pervaded by a tendency towards the center; the center itself being neutral as to motion. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 107]

When Leonhard Euler, the distinguished mathematician of the eighteenth century, wrote his essay on a New Theory of Music, Fuss remarks - "It has no great success, as it contained too much geometry for musicians, and too much music for geometers." There was a reason which Fuss was not seemingly able to observe, namely, that while it had hold of some very precious musical truth it also put forth some error, and error is always a hindrance to true progress. Euler did good service, however. In his letters to a German Princess on his theory of music he showed the true use of the mathematical primes 2, 3, and 5, but debarred the use of 7, saying, "Were we to introduce the number 7, the tones of an octave would be increased." It was wise in the great mathematician to hold his hand from adding other notes. It is always dangerous to offer strange fire on the altar. He very clearly set forth that while 2 has an unlimited use in producing Octaves, 3 must be limited to its use 3 times in producing Fifths. This was right, for in producing a fourth Fifth it is not a Fifth for the scale. But Euler erred in attempting to generate the semitonic scale of 12 notes by the use of the power of 5 a second time on the original materials. It produces F# right enough; for D27 by 5 gives 135, which is the number for F#. D27 is the note by which F# is produced, because D is right for this process in its unaltered condition. But when Euler proceeds further to use the prime 5 on the middles, A, E, and B, and F#, in their original and unaltered state, he quite errs, and produces all the sharpened notes too low. C# for the key of D is not got by applying 5 to A40, as it is in its birthplace; A40 has already been altered for the key of G by a comma, and is A40 1/2 before it is used for producing its third; it is A40 1/2 that, multiplied by 5, gives C#202 1/2, not C200, as Euler makes C#. Things are in the same condition with E before G# is wanted for the key of A. G# is found by 5 applied to E; not E in its original and unaltered state, E30; but as already raised a comma for the key of D, E30 3/8; so G# is not 300, as Euler has it, but 303 3/4. Euler next, by the same erroneous methods, proceeds to generate D# from B45, its birthplace number; but before D# is wanted for the key of E, B has been raised a comma, and is no longer B45, but B45 9/16, and this multiplied by 5 gives D#227 13/16, not D225, as Euler gives it. The last semitone which he generates to complete his 12 semitones is B?; that is A#, properly speaking, for this series, and he generates it from F#135; but this already altered note, before A# is wanted for the key of B, has been again raised a comma [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 107]

The Octave being divided into 53 commas, the intervals are measured, as usual, by these, the large second having 9-commas, the medium second having 8, and the small second 5. These measures are then made each the radius by which to draw hemispheres showing the various and comparative areas of the seconds. The comparative areas of the thirds are shown by the hemispheres of the seconds which compose them facing each other in pairs. The comma-measures of the various thirds thus determined are then made the radii by which to draw the two hemispheres of the fifths. The areas of the three fifths are identical, as also the attitudes of their unequal hemispheres. The attitude of the six thirds, on the other hand, in their two kinds, being reversed in the upper and under halves of the scale, their attitude gives them the appearance of being attracted towards the center of the tonic; while the attitude of the three fifths is all upward in the major, and all downward in the minor; their attraction being towards the common center of the twelve scales which Nature has placed between the second of the major and the fourth of the minor, as seen in the two D's of the dual genetic scale, - the two modes being thus seen, as it were, revolving [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 113]

One purpose of this plate is to show that twelve times the interval of a fifth divides the octave into twelve semitones; and each of these twelve notes is the first note of a major and a minor scale. When the same note has two names, the one has sharps and the other has flats. The number of sharps and flats taken together is always twelve. In this plate will also be observed an exhibition of the omnipresence of the chromatic chords among the twice twelve scales. The staff in the center of the plate is also used as to show the whole 24 scales. Going from the major end, the winding line, advancing by fifths, goes through all the twelve keys notes; but in order to keep all within the staff, a double expedient is resorted to. Instead of starting from C0, the line starts from the subdominant F0, that is, one key lower, and then following the line we have C1, G2, etc., B6 proceeds to G? instead of F#, but the signature-number continues still to indicate as if the keys went on in sharps up to F12, where the winding line ends. Going from the minor end, the line starts from E0 instead of A0 - that is, it starts from the dominant of A0, or one key in advance. Then following the line we have B1, F#2, etc. When we come to D#5, we proceed to B? instead of A#6, but the signature-number continues as if still in sharps up [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 114]

SYSTEM OF THE THREE PRIMITIVE CHROMATIC CHORDS.

The middle portion with the zigzag and perpendicular lines are the chromatic chords, as it were arpeggio'd. They are shown 5-fold, and have their major form from the right side, and their minor form from the left. In the column on the right they are seen in resolution, in their primary and fullest manner, with the 12 minors. The reason why there are 13 scales, though called the 12, is that F# is one scale and G? another on the major side; and D# and E? separated the same way on the minor side. Twelve, however, is the natural number for the mathematical scales as well as the tempered ones. But as the mathematical scales roll on in cycles, F# is mathematically the first of a new cycle, and all the notes of the scale of F# are a comma and the apotome minor higher than G?. And so also it is on the minor side, D# is a comma and the apotome higher than E?. These two thirteenth keys are therefore simply a repetition of the two first; a fourteenth would be a repetition of the second; and so on all through till a second cycle of twelve would be completed; and the thirteenth to it would be just the first of a third cycle a comma and the apotome minor higher than the second, and so on ad infinitum. In the tempered scales F# and G? on the major side are made one; and D# and E? on the minor side the same; and the circle of the twelve is closed. This is the explanation of the thirteen in any of the plates being called twelve. The perpendicular lines join identical notes with diverse names. The zigzag lines thread the rising Fifths which constitute the chromatic chords under diverse names, and these chords are then seen in stave-notation, or the major and minor sides opposites. The system of the Secondary and Tertiary manner of resolution might be shown in the same way, thus exhibiting 72 resolutions into Tonic chords. But the Chromatic chord can also be used to resolve to the Subdominant and Dominant chords of each of these 24 keys, which will exhibit 48 more chromatic resolutions; and resolving into the 48 chords in the primary, secondary, and tertiary manners, will make 144 resolutions, which with 72 above make 216 resolutions. These have been worked out by our author in the Common Notation, in a variety of positions and inversions, and may be published, perhaps, in a second edition of this work, or in a practical work by themselves. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 115]

THE TWENTY-FOUR SCALES WITH THEIR SIGNATURES IN SHARPS AND FLATS.

The scales in this plate advance by semitones, not in their normal way by fifths; but their normal progress by fifths is shown by the spiral-ellipse line winding round under the stave and touching the ellipses containing the scales by semitonic advance; the scales being read to the right for the majors inside, and to the right for the minors outside. In each of the modes the scales are written in ?s and #s, as is usual in signatures; and since the scales [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 116]

advance by semitones, the keys with ?s and #s alternate in both modes. The open between G# and A? in the major, and between D# and E? in the minor, is closed in each mode, and the scale made one. The dotted lines across the plate lead from major to relative minor; and the solid spiral line starting from C, and winding left and right, touches the consecutive keys as they advance normally, because genetically, by fifths. The relative major and minor are in one ellipse at C and A; and in the ellipse right opposite this the relative to F# is D#, and that of G? and E?, all in the same ellipse, and by one set of notes, but read, of course, both ways. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 117]

This diagram shows pictorially the open in the spiral of the mathematical scales, in which, if written in sharps only, B# is seen a little, that is, a comma and the apotome minor, in advance of C, and as the first scale of the new cycle; for it is a violation of Nature's beautiful steps to call it a thirteenth scale of this order, since every scale in the order is 31 commas in advance of the preceding, whereas B# is only one comma and a small fraction in advance of C. If the scales be written in ?s and #s for convenience of signature, then G# is seen a comma and apotome in advance of A?; while the whole circle of keys advancing by fifths are each 31 commas in advance of the preceding. We may therefore cast utterly from us the idea of there being more than twelve mathematical scales, and view the so-called thirteenth as simply the first of a new round of the endless spiral of scales. There is, however, in this note a banner with the strange device, "Excelsior," for it leads us onward into ever-advancing regions of vibrations, and would at last bring us to the ultimate and invisible dynamic structure of the visible world. The tempered system of 12 keys, as in Fig. 1, is by causing the G# and A? to coalesce and be one, as the two D's are already literally one by Nature's own doing. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 118]

This plate, in the outer stave, has the 32 notes which arise with mathematical development of twelve scales in advancing fifths. The notes are marked with sharps, flats, and commas. The flats and commas of lowering are placed on the left of the notes, in the order in which they arise, reading them from the note downward; the sharps and commas of rising on the right, also reading from the note upward. The whole of these 32 notes are brought within the compass of an octave. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 119]

Hughes
Helmholtz's experiments on developing colours shown to agree with the scheme
—The sounds of the Falls of Niagara are in triplets or trinities
—The Arabian system divides tones into thirds
—Two trinities springing from unity apparently the germ of never-ending developments in tones and colours
—Inequality of the equinoctial points; is the want of equilibrium the motive power of the entire universe?
—The double tones of keyed instruments, the meetings by fifths, the major and minor keys, so agree with the development of colours, that a correct eye would detect errors in a piece of coloured music
Numbers not entered upon, but develope by the same laws
Bass notes omitted in order to simplify the scheme, 18 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents2 - Harmonies]

EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS ADDRESSED TO F. J . HUGHES BY DR. GAUNTLETT.

On harmonical parallel between tone and colour
—On the term of "rest," fifths, and the sympathy of music with life
Relativities of sounds and vibrations of strings
—The doctrines of three pairs, six tones, and the law of "two and fro"
—The germ of the system probably to be found in the adaptability of numbers
—Sudden death of Dr. Gauntlett, . . . . . 48 [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Table of Contents4 - Harmonies]

The Sevens of the Key-notes and their scales, the latter written also as they pair by fifths. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Sevens of the Keynotes, page 25e]

The following table shows the regularity of each seven of the twelve key-notes ascending by fifths, and the use of the two poles is again seen. The key-notes and their trinities are closely linked into each other, the three highest notes of the lower fifth key becoming the three lowest of the higher fifth key, and the four lowest becoming the four highest in an octave higher. The twelve keys, rising in each note a tone higher and descending a tone lower, cause the meetings by fifths. Having examined the table, we may strike the keys by fifths as written in the musical clef, beginning with the lowest C in [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram VII - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Keys1, page 29]

Finally, trace the twelve keys by fifths as they veer round through the seven circles, each circle representing the eighteen tones. Beginning with C in the innermost circle ascending, C becomes the root of G, G of D, and so on. In descending, begin with C in the outermost circle (though really the first of a higher series which we have not the power of striking on instruments); F, its root, becomes the key-note, B? the root and then the key-note, and so on. The keys thus gained are written in musical clef below. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Twelve Scales Meeting by Fifths, page 31a]

The keys of C and G meeting are coloured, and show the beautiful results of colours arising from gradual progression when meeting by fifths. Each key-note and its trinities have been traced as complete in itself, and all knit into each other, the seven of each rising a tone and developing seven times through seven octaves, the keys mingled. The twelve scales have been traced, developing seven times through seven octaves, all knit into each other and into the key-notes and their trinities. The chords have also been traced, each complete in itself, and all knit into each other and into the key-notes, trinities, and scales. And lastly, one series of the twelve keys, no longer mingled, but modulating into each other, have been traced, closely linked into each other by fifths through seven octaves, three keys always meeting. Mark the number of notes thus linked together, and endeavour to imagine this number of tones meeting from the various notes. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Twelve Scales Meeting by Fifths, page 31a]

CHAPTER XVII.

DIAGRAM XIV.—THE MODULATING GAMUT OF THE TWELVE MINOR KEYS BY FIFTHS IN MUSICAL CLEF, AND THE SAME VEERING ROUND THROUGH TWELVE OCTAVES: THE THREE HARMONIES SOUNDED BY EACH KEY FOLLOWING IN SUCCESSION THROUGH THE TWELVE KEYS THAT ARE MINGLED AND EVER DEVELOPING.

"There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st,
But in his motion like an angel sings,
Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubim."—Shakespeare.
[Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XIV - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Minor Keys by Fifths1, page 39]

We may also examine the table of the twelve tones gained through seven octaves: the sharp or flat is written to each note, excepting in the keys as they unite in succession. Each key-note by fifths is seen to become a root of the fifth higher key-note: thus A becomes the root of E, and so on. In descending, each root of the fifth lower seven becomes the fifth higher key-note; the key-note D has G for its root, and so on. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XIV - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Minor Keys by Fifths1, page 39]

Lastly, we trace the twelve ascending by fifths as they veer round through the seven circles, each circle representing the eighteen tones, beginning with A in the innermost circle. A becomes the root of E, E of B, and so on. In descending, we begin with A in the outermost circle, though it is in fact the commencement of a higher series which we cannot strike. D, its root, becomes the fifth key-note lower, and so on. The keys of A and E are coloured, to show the result of the minor harmonies meeting by fifths. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Diagram XIV - The Modulating Gamut of the Twelve Minor Keys by Fifths3, page 41a]

My first plan was to take away entirely the present development of the Minor Keys; but, on consideration, it seems best to leave them exactly as they are, and to add fresh musical developments of the Minors, explaining them, and leaving it needless, for those who do not wish to look deeper into the subject, to examine the former development. Should they do so, however, they will see that not a single note is altered, the only difference being the Scales developing by fifths instead of by sevenths. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Supplementary Remarks, page 54]