quantum chronology

Atom Splitting

(click to enlarge)

Subatomic or Quantum Chronology
This is a time line of the discovery of the divisibility of the atom. It is clear Keely was the first and most prolific discoverer of this phenomenon. One needs to remember Keely developed an entire quantum paradigm 50 years before there was any quantum anything. He did his work before science recognized the atom was divisible. So he had to develop his own language. Gustave Le Bon claimed first discovery status in 1896 but we can see Keely was prior by at least 20 years. Both Rutherford and J. J. Thomson also made the claim in 1896. [See Keely Chronology, Quantum Mechanics Timeline]

“How shall I illustrate this spiritual truth or wisdom? I will call it a king, who made a great feast or science for man his son. So he sends wisdom into the minds to call or reason about this great feast or science. They, that is their errors, prevented them from understanding, so he sent other ideas or arguments to convince the error so that it could understand. But the error made light of the truth and went their way and would not reason so that it could not get any foothold as yet. So the error ridiculed any idea that would rise in the minds that this truth ever could be reduced to a science. They discarded from their minds all idea of a science but admitted it as a gift or power. So when the king had failed to reduce this truth to a science because of the errors of the age, it was wroth and it sent forth its power and destroyed these errors that were murdering its science, and by its truth burnt up their old theory or society. Then said he, the wedding or science is ready to be understood by man (or the son).” [Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, A Parable] (underline added)

1600 William Gilbert publishes De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism.
1637 Rene Descartes proposes wave theory of light.
1643 Evangelista Torricelli's (partial vacuum) mercury barometer.
1650 first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke
1662 Boyle's law published by Robert Boyle.
1665 Robert Hooke proposes wave theory of light.
1668 Christiaan Huygens proposes wave theory of light.
1687 Isaac Newton publishes "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"; usually called the "Principia"
1710 Franklin discerns polar charge.
1752, June; Franklin conducts his kite experiment
1791 Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles.
1794 Molecule defined, Descartes[1]
1800 Alessandro Volta develops battery, or voltaic pile
1803 Atom first physical evidence, John Dalton[2]
1818 John Dalton publishes 'System of Chemistry'.
1821 Michael Faraday invents the electric motor.
1824 first formulation of Second law of thermodynamics is credited to the French scientist Sadi Carnot
1831 Maxwell unifies electricity and magnetism.
1836 Faraday divined when he wrote, in 1836: "Thus, either present elements are the true elements, or else there is the probability before us of obtaining some more high and general power of nature even than electricity, and which at the same time might reveal to us an entirely new grade of the elements of matter, now hidden from our view and almost from our suspicion."
1838-1851 Richard Laming discerns atomic core and electron cloud.
1840 1840, Germain Hess stated a conservation law for the so-called 'heat of reaction' for chemical reactions.
1842 Waterton publishes kinetic theory of gases.
1846 Wilhelm Eduard Weber discerns polar fluids governed by inverse square law.
1847 Helmholtz generalizes conservation of energy law.
1850 Clausis states the first law of thermodynamics.
1856 German glassblower Heinrich Geissler created a mercury vacuum pump that evacuated a glass tube to an extent not previously possible. Geissler invented the first gas-discharge lamp, the Geissler tube, consisting of a partially evacuated glass tube with a metal electrode at either end.[30]
1859 Kirchhoff establishes thermodynamic foundation of radiation theory.
1860 Maxwell publishes "Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases".
1861 Maxwell publishes "On Physical Lines of Force".
1862 Hermann Helmholtz publishes "On the Sensations of Tone" mentioning Helmholtz Resonators.
1863 Cap guns were introduced.[25]
1865 Maxwell publishes "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field".
1865 James Clerk Maxwell predicts light is an electromagnetic wave.
1867 Maxwell publishes "On the Dynamical Theory of Gases".
1869 Johann Wilhelm Hittorf discovered a glow emitted from the cathode.
1869-1875 experimental electrical discharge tubes, cathode tube, Crookes tube, Geissler tube, etc.

1870± Keely begins his work with 'ether' or particle and field physics.
1870 Macvicar publishes "Sketch of a Philosophy".
1870s Sir William Crookes developed the first cathode ray tube to have a high vacuum inside.
1871 Walter Russell born May 19th.
1872 Keely discovers "polar negative attraction, Pressure produced by Vibration and "imprisons the ether".
1873 Keely develops 110 thousand pounds of pressure from vibration (liberated atomic constituents).
1873 James Clerk Maxwell publishes "A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism".
1873-1878 Gibbs publishes several important papers on thermodynamics.
1874 Electron postulated, George Johnstone Stoney[9]
1874 George Johnstone Stoney suggests electron as 'single definite quantity of electricity (charge)'
1875 Keely dissociates water for first time with vibration.
1875 John Tyndall publishes Notes of a Course of Nine Lectures on Light
1876 Bell patents telephone.
1876 Eugen Goldstein showed that the rays from this glow cast a shadow, and he dubbed the rays cathode rays.
1877 Boltzmann defines entropy in terms of probabilities.
1879 Sir William Crookes discovers 'radiant matter' which he called the fourth state of matter (plasma). [See subdivision]
1881 Hermann Helmholtz argued that both positive and negative charges were divided into elementary parts, each of which "behaves like atoms of electricity"
1881 George Johnstone Stoney initially coined the term electrolion.
1882 Nikola Tesla "sees" his Rotating magnetic field motor idea
1881 Carl Anton Bjerknes demonstrates the "Bjerknes Effect".
1882 Keely builds first generator of Etheric Force.
1882 Edison builds first commercial electric lighting.
1884 Nikola Tesla arrives in New York.
1884 Keely rotates globe motor.
1884 Keely claims a true levitation airship.
1885 Keely builds first Liberator (dissociates atoms).
1886 Bloomfield-Moore publishes Mr. Keely's Etheric Force
1886 Heaviside coins term "impedance".
1886 Keely publishes his Molecular Morphology - 13 - Chart Defining the Arrangement of the different Atoms and Corpuscles of Matter showing structure of atoms.
1886 Keely publishes his famous Charts - Part 25 - Keelys Wonderful Charts of Vibratory Etheric Science wherein the divisibility of the atom is clearly shown.
1886 Positive particle/ray (proton) noted, Goldstein[3]
1887 Michelson-Morley experiment[23]
1887 "The Michelson–Morley experiment was an attempt to detect the existence of aether, a medium permeating space that was thought to be the carrier of light waves. The experiment was performed between April and July 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year."
1887 Keely achieves continuous motion.
1887 Keely publishes "Keely's Theoretical Charts embracing the Philosophy of Planetary Suspension, Mechanical Rotation by Negative Attraction, Control of Mind over Matter"
1887 Bloomfield-Moore publishes The Keely Motor Secret
1887 Nikola Tesla demonstrates his rotating magnetic field.
1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily.
1888 Keely dissociates quartz.[24]
1888 Keely determines ether cannot be harnessed to power motors.
1888 Heinrich Hertz detects radio waves.
1889 Professor Leidy visits Keely’s Lab.
1890 Keely levitates metal weight.
1890 Arthur Schuster was able to estimate the charge-to-mass ratio of the cathode ray components.
1891 Bloomfield-Moore publishes "The Connecting Link Between Mind and Matter - Keelys Progress - Part 2".
1891 George Johnstone Stoney coins the word "electron" as a fundamental unit of charge.
1891 - In 1891, he [Stoney] proposed the term 'electron' to describe the fundamental unit of electrical charge, and his contributions to research in this area laid the foundations for the eventual discovery of the particle by J. J. Thomson in 1897.
1891, May - Keely publishes "Latent Force and Theory of Vibratory Lift for Airships" revealing how he dissociated water and solid matter, anti-gravity and velocities several times higher than speed of light.
1891 20th of October 1891, Sir James Chadwick was born. Discovers neutron in 1932.
1892 Electron mass proposed by Hendrik Lorentz[4]
1893 Keely develops electricity from space or vacuum.
1893 Keely "Matter is capable of infinite subdivision." Keely, 1893 [see Ultimate Constitution of Matter and Action of Force Regulating its Phenomena]
1893 Keely proposes atomoles: "Atomoles are elementary units of matter uniform in size and weight, and exist in solid, liquid, gaseous, and isolated forms." [Keely, plural atomolini; see 3.01 - Law of Matter and Force]
1893 Keely proposes atomolini: "The atomoles are made up of atomolini (singular atomolinus); the subdivision of matter from this point is beyond man's power, as at this point it escapes all control of apparatus, passing through glass and hardened steel as a luminous flame without heat, which is hardly seen before it vanishes, - a perpetual flame coldly luminous." [Keely, 1893]
1893 Bloomfield-Moore publishes "Keely and His Discoveries".
1894 Keely's forty laws published in Colville's Dashed Against the Rock.
1894 George Johnstone Stoney writes "... an estimate was made of the actual amount of this most remarkable fundamental unit of electricity, for which I have since ventured to suggest the name electron".
1895 Argon discovered.
1896 Electron discovered. Rutherford[4] First (official) evidence atoms are divisible.
1896 J. J. Thomson, with his colleagues John S. Townsend and H. A. Wilson, performed experiments indicating that cathode rays really were unique particles, rather than waves, atoms or molecules as was believed earlier.
1896 J. J. Thomson uses the term "corpuscle" and estimates charge and mass ratio of electron. The physicist J.J. Thomson measured the mass of cathode rays, showing they were made of particles, but were around 1800 times lighter than the lightest atom, hydrogen. Therefore, they were not atoms, but a new particle, the first subatomic particle to be discovered, which he originally called "corpuscle" but was later named electron, after particles postulated by George Johnstone Stoney in 1874. He also showed they were identical to particles given off by photoelectric and radioactive materials. It was quickly recognized that they are the particles that carry electric currents in metal wires, and carry the negative electric charge within atoms. Thomson was given the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. Thus he overturned the belief that atoms are the indivisible, ultimate particles of matter. Thomson also incorrectly postulated that the low mass, negatively charged electrons were distributed throughout the atom in a uniform sea of positive charge. This became known as the plum pudding model. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom
1896 Henry Ford makes his first self-propelled vehicle.
1896 Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford explore natural radioactivity.
1896 Gustave Le Bon published a paper revealing the dissociation of matter and intra-atomic energy for which he claimed priority of discovery.
1896 Nikola Tesla writes: "I have disintegrated atoms in my experiments with a high potential vacuum tube I brought out in 1896 which I consider one of my best inventions." [Radio Power will Revolutionize, Modern Mechanix and Invention, July, 1934]
1897 Electron discovered. Thomson[10][14]
1898 Keely ends his work, dies November 27.

1898 Neon was discovered in 1898 by William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers.[29]
1899 Alpha particle, Rutherford[14]
1899 Photon discovered, Rutherford[14]
1899 Neutron term appears in literature[5]
1900, April Gustave Le Bon publishes his findings on intra-atomic energy.
1900 Max Planck propose the quantum of action.
1900 Henri Becquerel deduces beta rays and electrons are the same.
1900 Nikola Tesla writes The Problem of Increasing Human Energy
1902 - The cubical atom was an early atomic model in which electrons were positioned at the eight corners of a cube in a non-polar atom or molecule. This theory was developed in 1902 by Gilbert N. Lewis and published in 1916 in the article "The Atom and the Molecule" and used to account for the phenomenon of valency.
1903 Wright brothers first flight.
1903 Bosch - High voltage magnetos produce spark (plasma)
1903 - The plum pudding model is one of several scientific models of the atom. First proposed by J. J. Thomson in 1904 soon after the discovery of the electron, but before the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the model represented an attempt to consolidate the known properties of atoms at the time: 1) electrons are negatively-charged particles and 2) atoms are neutrally-charged.
1904 Abegg’s Rule by Richard Abegg.
1904 - Nagaoka rejected Thomson's model on the grounds that opposite charges are impenetrable. In 1904, Nagaoka proposed an alternative planetary model of the atom in which a positively charged center is surrounded by a number of revolving electrons, in the manner of Saturn and its rings.
1905 Albert Einsteinphoto-electric effect[14]
1905 Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
1908 Tunguska Event 30 June 1908
1909 Gustave Le Bon publishes The Evolution of Matter detailing his dissociation of matter in the 1890s.
1909 Robert Millikan electron's charge was more carefully measured.
1910 Claude displays first commercial neon lamp (excited gas).[29]
1911 Nucleus discovered. Ernest Rutherford[6]
1913 Atomic Theory with nucleus and orbiting electrons.
1913 - In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, presented by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, is a system consisting of a small, dense nucleus surrounded by revolving electrons —similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity. After the cubic model (1902), the plum-pudding model (1904), the Saturnian model (1904), and the Rutherford model (1911) came the Rutherford–Bohr model or just Bohr model for short (1913).
1913 Atomic Number. Broek, Moseley[7]
1913 Isotopes discovered, Soddy[8]
1913 Niels Bohr postulated that electrons resided in quantized energy states, with the energy determined by the angular momentum of the electron's orbits about the nucleus.
1917 Proton discovered, Rutherford[3]
1919 In 1919, Rutherford had succeeded in disintegrating nitrogen atoms with alpha particles emitted from decaying radium atoms. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cockcroft
1920 Neutron as part of nucleus, Rutherford[5]
1920 Proton term appears in literature.[3]
1925 Born, Heisenberg and Jordan formulate quantum mechanics.
1925 Nuclear Reaction reported.[3]
1926 Walter Russell publishes The Universal One uses the term "ether".
1928 Langmuir coins term "plasma".
1932 April 14. Walton and Cockroft split nucleus of atom.
1932 Neutron discovered, James Chadwick[5]
1932 The discovery of the neutron in 1932 revealed that atomic nuclei were made of protons and neutrons, held together by an attractive force. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_force
1938 Nuclear Fission discovered[13], [28]
1939 Manhattan Project begins.[31]
1941 28 June 1941, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8807, which created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), with Vannevar Bush as its director. [28]
1942 Self Sustaining nuclear reactor[12]
*Atomic Pile sustained fission first achieved December 2, 1942.
1945 First nuclear weapon, Trinity, July 16[11], [28]
*First atomic detonation , July 16, 1945 Alamogordo, New Mexico
*Atomic Bomb Detonation , August 6, 1945 Hiroshima, Japan [31]
1947 Kaon and pion discovered[26]
1953 Walter Russell publishes A New Concept of the Universe
1956 Fermi Liquid proposed [27] See Liquid Ether
1957 Walter Russell publishes Atomic Suicide
1961 Eight Fold particle classification proposed
1964 Quark Model proposed[26]
1968 Quark Model evidence found[26]
1970 By the 1970s, the quark model had been developed, by which the mesons and nucleons were viewed as composed of quarks and gluons. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_force
  1. [See Keelys Accomplishments for more complete listing of Keely's accomplishments]
  2. [See Bloomfield-Moore for more complete listing of her writings about Keely and SVP]
  3. [See Keely Chronology and Chronology for more complete listing of characters and events]
  4. [See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subatomic_particle for detailed history of subatomic particles and a comprehensive list of them here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles]

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecule
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dalton#Atomic_theory
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron
[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron
[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_nucleus
[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_number
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom#Discovery_of_isotopes
[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom#Discovery_of_the_electron
[10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._J._Thomson
[11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(nuclear_test)
[12] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Pile-1
[13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission
[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subatomic_particle
[15] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_physics
[16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_particle
[17] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics
[18] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_field_theory
[19] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condensed_matter_physics
[20] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_electrodynamics
[21] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_chromodynamics
[22] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_energy_nuclear_physics
[23] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson–Morley_experiment
[24] Keely and Science - Part 1
[25] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cap_gun
[26] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark
[27] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermi_liquid_theory
[28] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project
[29] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neon_lamp
[30] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent_lamp
[31] The Manhattan Project

See Also

What the Ether is full article
Chronology post 1900
Chronology pre 1800
Keely Chronology

Created by Dale Pond. Last Modification: Monday January 16, 2023 01:50:26 MST by Dale Pond.