Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System. Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface. Composed primarily of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, they are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi space telescope (2013) have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernovae explosions of stars. Active galactic nuclei probably also produce cosmic rays. Wikipedia, Cosmic Ray
Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray:
In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than 10^18 eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.
The first observation of a cosmic ray particle with an energy exceeding 1.0×10^20 eV (16 J) was made at the Volcano Ranch experiment in New Mexico in 1962.
Cosmic rays are atomic nuclei that zip through space at the highest energies observed in nature. Some unknown engine accelerates them to energies 100 million times as high as that of protons in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator on Earth .
The largest study yet of the most energetic particles to slam into Earth provides the first solid clues to where the particles come from. Using a giant array of tubs of water, scientists found that these ultrahigh energy cosmic rays mostly originate outside the Milky Way.
An international team analyzed about 12 years of data to show that particles with energies above 8 billion billion electron volts generally come from a particular direction in the sky, and it’s not the galaxy’s center.
Karl-Heinz Kampert of the University of Wuppertal in Germany, a spokesperson for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which made the discovery said "It’s the first clear experimental indication that the sources of these high-energy particles are located outside of our own galaxy, probably somewhere in the nearby universe".
The observatory caught 30,000 ultrahigh energy cosmic rays between January 1, 2004, and August 31, 2016. The team found that, compared with the average density of particle strikes across the whole sky, about 6 percent fewer particles came from the center of the Milky Way. Slightly more particles came from a direction about 120 degrees away from the galactic center.
Karl-Heinz Kampert also said "Intriguingly, the excess points in the direction of the nearest cluster of galaxies to the Milky Way, located between 300 million and 900 million light-years from Earth. That finding suggests cosmic rays are produced in some galaxies, just not ours. Wikipedia, Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray
“Cosmic rays are mostly protons accelerated by some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe, like the blast waves of exploding stars and jets produced when matter falls into black holes,” explained Mazziotta.
These images show the steadily improving view of the Moon’s gamma-ray glow from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Each 5-by-5-degree image is centered on the Moon and shows gamma rays with energies above 31 million electron volts, or tens of millions of times that of visible light. At these energies, the Moon is actually brighter than the Sun. Brighter colors indicate greater numbers of gamma rays. This image sequence shows how longer exposure, ranging from two to 128 months (10.7 years), improved the view.
"I have satisfied myself that the cosmic rays are not generated by the formation of new matter in space, a process which would be like water running up a hill. Nor do they come to any appreciable amount from the stars. According to my investigations the sun emits a radiation of such penetrative power that it is virtually impossible to absorb it in lead or other substances... This ray, which I call the primary solar ray, gives rise to a secondary radiation by impact against the cosmic dust scattered through space. It is the secondary radiation which now is commonly called the cosmic ray, and comes, of course, equally from all directions in space. ...The phenomena of radioactivity are not the result of forces within the radioactive substances but are caused by this ray emitted by the sun. If radium could be screened effectively against this ray it would cease to be radioactive." [Quoted in 'Tesla, 75, Predicts New Power Source', New York Times (5 Jul 1931), Section 2, 1.]
"Not to be fooled by their historical name, cosmic rays generally refer to high energy particles with mass whereas high energy in the form of gamma rays and/or X-rays are photons. These cosmic particles were discovered in 1912 by Victor Hess when he ascended to 5300 meters above sea level in a hot air balloon and detected significantly increased levels of ionization in the atmosphere. "In many cases the cosmic rays are not directly observed and it is in fact the secondary effects such as gamma rays or neutrinos that are detected." https://www.resonancescience.org/blog/Particles-Are-Flying-Out-of-Earths-Poles
"The reverse of this principle applies in depolarizing bodies. Depolarizing bodies on the radioactive half of any cycle project time accumulations from them at tremendous speeds. Helium and other inert gases explode outwardly from tungsten at approximately half the "speed of light" while similar "rays" explode outwardly from radium, actinium, thorium, uranium and uridium at almost the speed of light.
Conversely, generoactive rays explode inwardly at tremendous speeds in the first three invisible octaves. Alpha, beta, gamma and "cosmic" rays explode inwardly to center invisible generating matter as they and the older inert gases explode outwardly from degenerating visible matter." [Walter Russell, A New Concept of the Universe, pages 112-117]