Tungsten has the highest melting point of all the metallic elements and because of this has its first significant commercial application as the filament in incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent light bulbs. Tungsten is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Later it was used in the first television tubes. The first imaging equipment involved X-ray bombardment of a tungsten target. Tungsten expands at nearly the same rate as borosilicate glass and is used to make metal to glass seals. It is the primary metal in heating elements for electric furnaces and in any components where high pressure/temperature environments are expected, such as aerospace and engine systems. Tungsten is alloyed in steel to improve its ability to operate in high temperatures. Tungsten carbide is used in drill bits and cutting tools because it is one of the hardest commercial materials.. Tungsten forms compounds with calcium and magnesium that have phosphorescent properties and are used in the glass coatings for fluorescent light bulbs. Other tungsten chemical compounds are used in catalysts and lubricants. In reference to its density, Tungsten gets its name from the swedish words tung and sten meaning heavy stone.
Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Tungsten is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.
Tungsten is a Block D, Group 6, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Tungsten's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2. In its elemental form tungsten's CAS number is 7440-33-7. The tungsten atom has a radius of 137.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm.
All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology advantages. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopes. Organo-Metallic Tungsten compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents.
"The researchers experimented with aluminum, copper, steel, and tungsten, and found that tungsten, commonly used as a thermal solar absorber, had the highest solar absorption efficiency when treated with the new nanoscale structures. This improved the efficiency of thermal electrical generation by 130 percent compared to untreated tungsten." https://phys.org/news/2020-02-lasers-etch-solar-energy-absorber.html
"As we described in previous pages, a tungsten wire thus electrocuted in a vacuum tube leaves a residue of the inert gas helium. That helium is the Soul-seed of the tungsten body. It is the Soul-record of that body which is its identity in a unitary universe. It is the zero of tungsten's multiplicity." [Atomic Suicide, page 245-246]
"It is necessary to know why tungsten becomes helium. There are nine inert Soul-recording gases, why helium? The inert gas for the tungsten octave is xenon. Why should tungsten not refold into xenon? The answer is that it does refold into xenon, but all of the inert gases are within each other and helium is the balancing inert gas of the nine. Xenon expands into krypton. Krypton expands into argon, then into neon until it finds balance in carbon." [Atomic Suicide, page 246]
"The reverse of this principle applies in depolarizing bodies. Depolarizing bodies on the radioactive half of any cycle project time accumulations from them at tremendous speeds. Helium and other inert gases explode outwardly from tungsten at approximately half the "speed of light" while similar "rays" explode outwardly from radium, actinium, thorium, uranium and uridium at almost the speed of light.
Conversely, generoactive rays explode inwardly at tremendous speeds in the first three invisible octaves. Alpha, beta, gamma and "cosmic" rays explode inwardly to center invisible generating matter as they and the older inert gases explode outwardly from degenerating visible matter." [Walter Russell, A New Concept of the Universe, pages 112-117]
Table of the Elements - Russell Elements