chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present), and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur.

The substance (or substances) initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Reactions often consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the so-called elementary reactions, and the information on the precise course of action is part of the reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions.

Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms.

Reactions may proceed in the forward or reverse direction until they go to completion or reach equilibrium. Reactions that proceed in the forward direction to approach equilibrium are often described as spontaneous, requiring no input of free energy to go forward. Non-spontaneous reactions require input of free energy to go forward (examples include charging a battery by applying an external electrical power source, or photosynthesis driven by absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the form of sunlight).

Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product. In biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions (where the product of one reaction is the reactant of the next reaction) form metabolic pathways. These reactions are often catalyzed by protein enzymes. Enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions can occur at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell.

The general concept of a chemical reaction has been extended to reactions between entities smaller than atoms, including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays, and reactions between elementary particles as described by quantum field theory. (underline added) Wikipedia, Chemical Reaction

It is known, for example, that for the liquefaction of brown coal (lignite) appropriate catalysts are required. Here there is no uniformity, because everything is bipolar and therefore it is necessary to make a clear distinction between positive and negative catalysts. The chemical reaction itself is of no interest biologically speaking, and the whole thing must be considered from a higher standpoint, otherwise it would be impossible, for example, to liquefy hard coal (anthracite), i.e. to transfer it to the next higher state of evolvement. This also applies to calcium (combusted marble) and other insoluble basic substances. That a falling temperature gradient is of decisive importance for biological processes of development, has already been emphasised elsewhere. Since science, which thinks too mechanistically, has also failed to grasp this, it would unable to understand the naturalesque interpretation of the concept of 'reaction', which here is to be understood as a process of ur-genesis. Without this there would be no reproduction or further development, which is responsible for higher-grade emulsions, namely the inner fusion (marriage) of etherialised primary substances in the 4th spacial dimension. As long as the [The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, The Catalysts]

noun: all the chemical processes by which cells produce the energy and substances necessary for life. Food is separated (dissociated) into the parts it is made up of to produce heat and energy, to repair tissues, and to help growth to happen.
noun: the organic processes in a cell or organism that are necessary for life
noun: the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

Metabolism ("change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are:

(1) the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cellular processes;
(2) the conversion of food to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates;
(3) and the elimination of metabolic wastes. [Metabolism]

These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transportation of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary (or intermediate) metabolism. [Metabolism]

See Also

action and reaction sequence
action-reaction mathematics of the cycle
chain reaction
chemical affinity
chemical assimilation
Chemical Equilibrium
chemical equivalent
chemical ether
chemical tension
electric action-reaction
Figure 14.04 - The Alchemical Light
Figure 2.16 - Alchemical Graphics showing Celestial and Terrestrial Realms
Gyroscopic Reactionless Drive
Law of Atomolic Synthesis of Chemical Elements
Law of Chemical Affinity
Law of Chemical Dissociation
Law of Chemical Morphology
Law of Chemical Substitution
Law of Chemical Transposition
Law of Electro-Chemical Equivalents
negative reaction
photonuclear reaction
Redox Reaction

Created by Dale Pond. Last Modification: Thursday October 27, 2022 05:03:24 MDT by Dale Pond.