noun: the adjustment of a radio receiver or other circuit to a required frequency
noun: the property of producing accurately a note of a given pitch
noun: a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence
verb: of musical instruments, sounding instruments
verb: adjust for (better) functioning

The scales march on following each other methodically, whether they be written with sharps or flats, and

"Not a step is out of tune, as the tides obey the moon."

The most natural, because the genetic, way to write the scales is to make the major scales all in sharps, after C, because the major genesis is upward in ratios ascending; and to make the minor scales all in flats, after A, because the minor genesis is downward in ratios descending. Let the young student, however, always keep in mind that the sharps and flats are simply marks to show how Nature, at whatever pitch we are taking the scales, is securely keeping them in the same form as when they are first generated; and in their birthplace no sharps or flats are needed. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 90]


In passing from one key to another in the fellowship of keys in a composition, the new key grows out of the top of the dominant and converts the old dominant into a tonic. The dominant and subdominant being at the opposite extremes of the key, with the tonic between them, are not related by affinity. This want of affinity makes an opening in the system for the new chord to come in by, and it, being related by affinity to the chord of the old dominant, which is now the new Tonic, comes in and establishes itself and the new key for the time. It is this gap between subdominant and dominant, along with the affinity existing between the new key and the old dominant, which makes this musical event to be so gracefully accomplished. This is what is called natural modulation, the passing for a time into another key in the course of a composition; and its abundant and habitual use in music, even in the simplest chorales, shows how natural and acceptable it is. The young student will find illustrations in the second lines of the Psalm tunes - Watchman, Sicily, Tranquility, Eaton, Birmingham, Jackson, Bethel, Bedford, and Sheffield. Take Watchman, for example, and let the young student follow carefully, noting each chord of the little passage, which we shall analyse for his help. It is by such practice that he will become by-and-by familiar with the kinship of keys and the legitimate resources of harmony. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 93]

This tune is in the key of E♭ Major, and the key into which it moves for a passage is the next above it, B♭ Major. The first chord, E♭ G B♭, is the tonic; the second and third are the tonic and dominant; the fourth, C E♭ G, whose full form would be C E♭ G B♭, is the compound subdominant of the new key, which suggests the approaching modulation. The next two chords, in which the measure closes, may either be viewed as the tonic and dominant of the key, or the subdominant and tonic of the new key. The second measure opens with the same chord which closes the first measure, and is best defined as the tonic of the new key; the second chord is clearly the dominant of the new key, and the whole of the second measure is in the new key, and reads, T. D. S. T. compound D. T. Some of these chords might be read as chords of the old key, so near to each other and so kindred are the contiguous keys. All contiguous keys to a certain extent overlap each other, so that some of the chords may be variously read as belonging to the one or to the other. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 94]

In the opening of the third measure the tune returns to its own key by striking the tonic. This case is a very simple illustration of how a composition will move with perfect naturalness in more keys than one, the keys so grow out of each other, and may either merely snatch a passing chord from a new key, or pass quite into it for a phrase or two, or for a whole measure, then return as naturally, either by a smooth and quiet or by a strongly contrasted turn, according to the chords between which the turn takes place. In such modulation there may or there may not be marked a sharp, , or , in the air itself; the note which Nature raises in the new key may occur in one of the other parts of the harmony. In Watchman it is A, the fourth, which is altered; from being it is made . The change which takes place in the sixth of the scale, which is C in Watchman, is only one comma, the ratio of 80 to 81, and it slips into the new key as if nothing had happened. No mark is placed to it, as the comma difference is never taken notice of, although it is really and regularly taking place, with all the precision of Nature, in every new key. It is, however, only the note which is altered four commas, which is marked by a sharp, , or , as the case may be. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 94]

study of the natural sciences, as we progress, we find that "hills peep o'er hills, and alps o'er alps arise." As regards keyed instruments, it appears that the effect of those notes which act two parts, such as C# and D♭, is rectified in some way so as to be perfectly attuned to the ideal of harmony within us. Again, the "Amen" sung by the choir in a cathedral may not be in accurate tune, but if nearly the correct intonation is sounded, after traveling along the aisles, the chords always return to the ear in perfect harmony, because the natural laws of music, assisted by the echoing power of the building, have attuned them to the perfect harmonical triad. If the "Amen" be too much out of tune, these laws decline to interfere, and there is no such helpful resonance.* [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, The Method of Development or Creation of Harmonies2, page 16]

I will close this Appendix with a remark once made to me by Dr. Gauntlett. I am sorry I forget where he said it occurred. "After I had been for some time organist, one of the congregation said to me, 'When you first came, the tunes on the organ were loud and clear; now, the voices of the congregation almost drown them.' I replied, 'That has been my aim—it should be so. When I began, the organ was needed to lead the voices: I have been gradually subduing it, that the voices of praise should be uppermost.'"
F. J. H. [Harmonies of Tones and Colours, Fragments from Dr. Gauntlett's Last Note-book, page 51]

See Also

05 - The Melodic Relations of the sounds of the Common Scale
3.7 - Non-synchronized Voiding at Plane of Inertia
9.37 - Harmonized Motions
9.38 - Enharmonized Motions
Figure 3.24 - Non-synchronized Voiding at Plane of Inertia is Regenerative
Figure 9.18 - Harmonized Motions
Figure 9.19 - Enharmonized Motions
Ramsay - PLATE XXV - Major harmonized

Created by Dale Pond. Last Modification: Wednesday September 14, 2022 04:44:44 MDT by Dale Pond.