In mathematics, the **logarithm** is the inverse operation to exponentiation. That means the **logarithm** of a number is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base, must be raised to produce that number. In simple cases the **logarithm** counts factors in multiplication. For example, the base 10 **logarithm** of 1000 is 3, as 10 to the power 3 is 1000 (1000 = 10 × 10 × 10 = 103); 10 is used as a factor three times. More generally, exponentiation allows any positive real number to be raised to any real power, always producing a positive result, so the **logarithm** can be calculated for any two positive real numbers b and x where b is not equal to 1. Wikipedia, Logarithm

**Gustave Le Bon**

"I must point out, by the way - and this observation will explain many historical events - that it is not only physical, but many social phenomena which can be likewise defined by curves possessing the properties we have just stated, and in which consequently, very small changes in a cause may produce very great effects. This is owing to the fact that when a cause acts for a length of time in a same direction, its effects increase in geometrical progression, while the cause varies simply in arithmetical progression. *Causes are the logarithms of effects.*" [Gustave Le Bon, The Evolution of Matter, page 194]

See Also