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Ether not the same as aether. See also discussion on ether in Part 7.22.
splitting the atom - Keely details on Keely splitting molecules and atoms. They called the released elements "ether" because our modern quantum realm was then unknown.
"Beyond disintegration lies dispersion, and Keely can just as easily disperse atoms of matter as disintegrate its molecules, dispersing them into ether. The law of gravity appears in the light of Keely's experiments but one manifestation of a law which provides for the reversion of the process of attraction in the shape of a process of repulsion. Keely, by means of a belt and certain appliances which he wore upon his person moved singlehanded, a 500 horsepower vibratory engine from one part of his shop to another, without a scratch on the floor, and astounded engineers declared it could not have been moved without a derrick, to use which would have required the removal of the roof." [KEELYS SECRETS - 1888]
Atoms are composed of (created from and with) this atomolic (sub-atomic, quantum) substance as per Keely's and Russell's paradigms. We know today atoms are composed of so-called sub-atomic or quantum particles or as I prefer to call it: centralizations.
In Keely's time the atom was considered indivisible by every scientist of that time period. There were no elements smaller than an atom for anyone to consider. It wasn't until 1896 or so when Thomson et al isolated and quantified the electron thus opening the door to the possibility of other subatomic particles. [See fantastic creations. The Victorians, knowing there was 'something' unidentified beyond the atom but not able to isolate and quantify it simply lumped it all together and called it ether.
Ether is not a specific thing or item. The term is a general class of things unknown (at that time). It's like using the term "apple" which is a general term encompassing all the many varieties of apples but singling out none of them. Same for the term ether. Today science acknowledges many subatomic or quantum particles. Lumping all these together would be a subset of the general Victorian term "ether". Yet there are countless additional types or particles or substances inhabiting the subatomic realm not yet acknowledged by science. Keely said there were countless of them. On this page are a dozen or more links to the definitions of ether provided by some scientists of the Victorian era. You will notice no two agree on the definition. Hence it is presumed they were each talking about a different ether yet all lumped under that term.
It is this, our quantum soup, the Victorians referred to as "ether". As there are many different kinds of quantum entities there are likewise different kinds of ethers which accounts for Russell's twenty-five classifications of ether (pre or proto-hydrogen elements) and the varying and many descriptions of ether from different scientists of that time period, some listed below. So to say "there is no ether" denotes ignorance, arrogance and the worst of all negative personality traits - unquestioning conformity to self-referenced and arbitrary authority [see false gods]. Unquestioning conformity to arbitrary authority is a disease of the mind and Will. Should anyone make the blanket statement "there is no ether" ask them "which ether are you referring to?". [See Etheric Elements]
A clear and common sense discussion of Keely's splitting of the atom is here: What the Ether is
On the nature and definition of Ether.
In three ranges of vibratory action
"If matter without form preceded creation of energy, it was only when life was given that the atoms became grouped in individualities through their intrinsic properties. The hypothesis of Macvicar and demonstrations of Keely pivot on the law of assimilation "providing at once for the free and the forced ... for mind and matter, and placing them ... in relationship." This law is summarized as "Every individualized object ... assimilates itself to itself in successive moments of its existence and all objects tend to assimilate one another." In its own nature, matter is wholly plastic or devoid of fixed innate properties wholly assimilative - both with respect to its own portions and to surrounding objects, as well as its position in space and insofar as it is capable, to the mind of its Creator. In the ether are constructed groups of ethereal elements generating material elements." [JOHN ERNST WORRELL KEELY]
"If all cosmical action is cyclical, matter, when existing free in the ether, must ultimately tend to dissolve into pure ether again, for, if the law of creation is as a cycle, in which, after development and as its fruit, the last term gives the first, then has he grounds for his conjecture that complication in structure is necessary to the segregation of nervous matter, and the construction of a "myo-neuro-cerebral system" and that ether and matter, after developing a molecular economy, as the mother and nurse of a soul or monad of a higher order than the merely material element, through or by this organism, complete the cycle of the economy of material nature, and eventually touch upon the spiritual world again and contribute to it. This true protoplasm, the ether, Keely claims to ... liberate by vibratory machinery as the medium of a motive power, which he calls "sympathetic negative attraction." [JOHN ERNST WORRELL KEELY]
"Up to 1888 Keely was still pursuing the wrong line of research, still trying to construct an engine which could hold the ether in "a rotating circle of etheric force," still ignorant of the impossibility of ever reaching commercial success on that line. It was the end of the year before he could be brought to entirely abandon his "perfect engine" and to confine himself to researches, which he had been pursuing in connection with his repeated failures on the commercial line, to gain more knowledge of the laws which govern the operation of the force." [JOHN ERNST WORRELL KEELY]
"The structure of the air molecule according to Keely is as follows: Broken up, by vibratory action, he finds it to contain the "atomic triplet." This exists in a triangular position within the molecule, at its center, unless acted upon by electricity, when the molecule becomes oblate and the three atoms are ranged in a line within unless broken up by vibration. Nature never gives a vacuum, consequently the space within the molecule not occupied by the atomic triplet must be filled with something. This is where the "all-pervading ether" has made its secret abode through untold aeons." [KEELYS SECRETS - 1888]
Ether, What Others Say About Ether/Aether
The ether of the ancients is our quantum world populated with a multitude of quantum entities known and unknown. Ether is not a simple substance but is composed of the various quantum entities (electrons, photons, etc.) and their diverse combinations now beginning to be known to orthodox science. Therefore there are diverse types of ether having a plethora of characteristics. The following uses and definitions of the terms "aether" and "ether" will show many different people describing many different kinds of ether. The notion that "ether does not exist" because it was not measurable some decades ago is nonsense. Electricity was not measurable some time ago. Radio waves were not measurable some time ago. Non-measurability by fumbling science does not preclude the existence of that sought. Nowadays we do not use the term "ether" because it has been given a bad rap. The new term for the same thing is Plasma of which there are admittedly many varieties or energy levels. By changing the label the subject is now acceptable.
Ether is differentiated aether. aether is undifferentiated ether. They are not the same things though one originates from the other much as music scale notes develop from their keynote or fundamental. They each have different wavefunctions. The difference between the two can be seen in Mead's explanation of aether and within Pond's Chart of Matter and Energy as also in Etheric Elements where different etheric (quantum) entities are being identified and categorized.
Ether - Ampere
Ether - Barton
Ether - Black
Ether - Bloomfield-Moore
Ether - Cayce
Ether - Cullen
Ether - Einstein
Ether - Fitzgerald
Ether - Haeckel
Ether - Helmholtz
Ether - Hertz
Ether - Holt
Akasa - Ether: The First Duality
Ether - Kant
Ether - Keely
Ether - Kelvin Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson)
Laing, Stephen [see Discussion on the Ether]
Ether - Larmor
Ether - Lorentz1
Ether - Lorentz2
Ether - Maxwell
Ether - Meade, G.R.S.
Ether - Michelson
Ether - Miller
Ether - Newton
Ether of Space Oliver Lodge
In Tom Bearden's glossary under the Tesla, Nikola headingR30;R30;R30;..one recognizes Tesla's genius regarding his 'understanding' that.. "From his experiments he knew that the EM wave in vacuum was longitudinal, like sound waves... I showed that the universal medium is a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves in the air. Thus, a wireless transmitter does not emit Hertz waves which are a myth, but sound waves in the ether, behaving in every respect like those in the air, except that, owing to the great elastic force and extremely small density of the medium, their speed is that of light." (Tesla)
TESLA, NIKOLA Source: http://www.cheniere.org/techpapers/Annotated%20Glossary.htm
Famous American electrical inventor and eccentric whoR17;s numerous inventions fueled much of the electrical 20th century.
Tesla produced the AC system, including polyphase systems. From his experiments he knew that the EM wave in vacuum was longitudinal, like sound waves. In spite of his great accomplishments, his eccentricities and grandiose pronouncements did not endear him to electrodynamicists! An example is his acrid comment: "...I showed that the universal medium is a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves in the air. Thus, a wireless transmitter does not emit Hertz waves which are a myth, but sound waves in the ether, behaving in every respect like those in the air, except that, owing to the great elastic force and extremely small density of the medium, their speed is that of light." Another major example is his statement: "The Hertz wave theory of wireless transmission may be kept up for a while, but I do not hesitate to say that in a short time it will be recognized as one of the most remarkable and inexplicable aberrations of the scientific mind which has ever been recorded in history."
Ironically, modern quantum mechanics has almost proven Tesla right that "the universal medium is a gaseous body." Today the modern QM vacuum is very much like a virtual particle gas. And of course the discussions in this present annotated glossary show why I personally am of the opinion that Tesla was also correct in his firm disbelief that those Faraday-Maxwell "taut physical strings without physical holders" filled the ether and provided transverse EM wave oscillations. I also agree with him that the EM wave in vacuum is a longitudinal wave, exactly like a sound wave. I believe that the transverse gyroelectron precession waves that our instruments actually measure in the conductor when it receives an incoming EM wave from the vacuum, proves that the vacuum wave is indeed longitudinalR12;else it would seem we must discard the spin of an electron and the theory of gyroscopes. Finally, one should see, e.g., Patrick Cornille, "Inhomogeneous Waves and Maxwell's Equations." Chapter 4 in Essays on the Formal Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory, Aklesh Lakhtakia, Ed., World Scientific, New York, 1993. Cornille clearly shows that Maxwell's equations are directly created by scalar potential interferometry. As he states, this means that EM force field waves are created by the interference of sound-type scalar potential waves, or "sound creates light." This strongly supports Tesla's original statement that EM waves in the vacuum are actually EM sound waves, much like sound waves in a gas.
As a viewer of the research of others it is most gratifying to come across those statements of fact; that appear to corroborate one's beliefs, impressions, and attitudes regarding our understanding of the system of creation.
We live in a world of chaos; theory;..and of extreme complexity, ranging from the micro to the macro systems dealing in complex infinities. So when one finds a refreshing statement like Tesla's, equating: "EM wave in vacuum was longitudinal, like sound waves" I regain my respect for the Biblical pronouncement: "Then God [said], Let there be light" as the first initiator of Creation. (from the Book of Genesis).
For the "Light" that "God" spoke into existence became the canvas upon which the Creation was painted [structured]
All the Best,
Leslie R. Pastor 2002, 12/03
"Thus this motion [of the ether] was so slow that the experiments of M. Lodge, although very precise, were yet not precise enough to detect it. To say all that I think, I believe that if these experiments had been a hundred or a thousand times more precise, the result would still have been negative.
In support of this opinion I have nothing to offer but a subjective conviction; if the result had been positive, one would have been able to measure the density of the ether, and - if the reader forgive me the vulgarity of this expression - it is repugnant to me to think that the ether is si arrive que cela [that big a success]." Poincare
Ether - Pond
Ether - Preston
S. Zolver Preston, in his 'Physics of the Ether', says: "A quantity of matter representing a total mass of only one grain, and possessing the normal velocity of the ether particles, that of a wave of light, encloses a state of energy represented by upward of one thousand millions of foot tons. Or the mass of a single grain contains an energy not less than that possessed by a mass of 70,000 tons, moving at the speed of a cannon ball (1200 feet per second); or, otherwise, a quantity of matter, representing a mass of one grain, imbued with the velocity of the ether particles, encloses an amount of energy which, if entirely utilized, would be competent to project a weight of 100 tons to a height of one mile and nine-tenths of a mile."
S. Zolver Preston, in his "Physics of the Ether" says: "A quantity of matter only 1 gram and of the normal velocity of the ether, or a wave of light encloses a state of energy represented by 1,000,000,000 foot tons. Or the mass of a grain contains an energy sufficient to project a weight of 100 tons to a height of 1.9 miles." [Snell Manuscript - the book, KEELYS SECRETS - 1888]
"Indeed, no other art of the whole compass of philosophy affords so fine a scene for ingenious speculation. Here the imagination may have full play, in conceiving of the manner in which an invisible agent produces an almost infinite variety of visible effects. As the agent is invisible, every philosopher is at liberty to make it whatever he pleases, and ascribe to it such properties and powers as are most convenient for his purpose." Priestley
"If the degree of Heat in a solid Body, to which the Expansive Force of the aether between the Parts of Body is Proportional, be equal to the Force wherewith the Parts of the Body cohere; that Body, setting aside external Compression, will become fluid, and its Parts, by yielding to a Force impressed, be rendered capable of moving easily amongst themselves." Robinson
Ether - Russell
(It is) "by means of chemistry that Sir Isaac Newton has made a great part of his surprising discoveries in natural philosophy; and that curious set of queries, which we find at the end of his optics, are almost wholly chemical. Indeed chemistry, in its extent, is scarce less than the whole of natural philosophy." Shaw
"New analysis of the interferometer observations of Dayton C. Miller."
Summarizes ether drift experiments subsequent to Michelson-Morley experiment. Concludes that Miller's results were seriously affected by temperature effects.
Reviews of Modern Physics. 27(2), Apr. 1955. p. 167-178.
"Keely has attained the transmission of the etheric current in the same manner as the electric current with this one notable difference, that, in order to show insulation to the skeptical, he passes the etheric current, through blocks of glass in running his vibratory devices." Snell Manuscript
"whether one does not in general have to conceive magnetic and electric phenomena as conditions of a medium, perhaps the luminferous ether, and whether particularly one does not have to assume that magnetic and electric forces are only apparent actions at a distance, being in fact immediate actions of the medium, dependent on its momentary states and therefore also propagated, just as these states, with finite velocity." Stefan
See: Ether - Steiner
Ether - Stranges
"."... Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curving of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies, and producing the opposite effects, straightening out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible - But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for the motions of the bodies as observed, and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena." "My second discovery was of a physical truth of the greatest importance. As I have searched the entire scientific records in more than a half dozen languages for a long time without finding the least anticipation, I consider myself the original discoverer of this truth, which can be expressed by the statement: There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment." R12; Nikola Tesla H. Winfield Secor, Tesla Maps Our Electrical Future, Science and Invention, 19(12), p. 1077, 1124-1126. Quote: "Tesla upholds the startling theory formulated by him long ago, that the radio transmitters as now used, do not emit Hertz waves, as commonly believed, but waves of sound... He says that a Hertz wave would only be possible in a solid ether, but he has demonstrated (as has Keely) already in 1897 that the ether is a gas, which can only transmit waves of sound; that is such as are propagated by alternate compressions and rarefactions of the medium in which transverse waves are absolutely impossible." In his 1891 A.I.E.E. lecture at Columbia College, Tesla said in pertinent part (emphasis mine): "What is Electricity, and what is magnetism? "...We are now confident that electric and magnetic phenomena are attributable to the ether, and we are perhaps justified in saying that the effects of static Electricity are effects of ether in motion". "...we may speak of Electricity or of an electric condition, state or effect". "...we must distinguish two such effects, opposite in character neutralizing each other". "...for in a medium of the properties of the ether, we cannot possibly exert a strain, or produce a displacement or motion of any kind, without causing in the surrounding medium an equivalent and opposite effect." "...its condition determines the positive and negative character." "We know that it acts like an incompressible fluid;" "...the electro-magnetic theory of light and all facts observed teach us that electric and ether phenomena are identical." "The puzzling behavior of the ether as a solid to waves of light and heat, and as a fluid to the motion of bodies through it, is certainly explained in the most natural and satisfactory manner by assuming it to be in motion, as Sir William Thomson has suggested." "Nor can anyone prove that there are transverse ether waves emitted from an alternate current machine; to such slow disturbances, the ether, if at rest, may behave as a true fluid." In his statements, Tesla was balancing the various arguments in preparation for his decision: "...Electricity, therefore, cannot be called ether in the broad sense of the term; but nothing would seem to stand in the way of calling Electricity ether associated with matter, or bound ether; or, in other words, that the so-called static charge of the molecule is ether associated in some way with the molecule." "...It cannot differ in density, ether being incompressible: it must, therefore, be under some strain or in motion, and the latter is the most probable." Tesla therefore believed in an ether which was in motion relative to earth, because the earth is in motion. The thing which Tesla had realized, was that ether possesses electric charges which are deposited on atoms. In supporting the "dynamic" ether concept, he was supporting the "stationary ether" concept, since the "motion" he referred to was "apparent" motion of the ether perceived by an observer on earth, relative to a stationary ether. The importance of cosmic motion to the electromagnetic effects of static charges was brought up by Tesla in his lecture: "About fifteen years ago, Prof. Rowland demonstrated a most interesting and important fact, namely, that a static charge carried around produces the effects of an electric current." "...and conceiving the electrostatically charged molecules in motion, this experimental fact gives us a fair idea of magnetism. We can conceive lines or tubes of force which physically exist, being formed of rows of directed moving molecules; we can see that these lines must be closed, that they must tend to shorten and expand, etc. It likewise explains in a reasonable way, the most puzzling phenomenon of all, permanent magnetism, and, in general, has all the beauties of the Ampere theory without possessing the vital defect of the same, namely, the assumption of molecular currents. Without enlarging further upon the subject, I would say, that I look upon all electrostatic, current and magnetic phenomena as being due to electrostatic molecular forces." In these statements, Tesla showed he was aware that any "stationary" locale on earth is actually in fantastic motion ("70,000 mph"). The electrostatic charges "carried around" are currents between atoms and the ether, which produce magnetism. The phenomena of 'permanent magnetism' or 'cosmically induced' magnetism are apparently due to electrostatic charges 'carried around' by cosmic motion, in the universal ether field. Since no one can hold an atom or molecule perfectly still - because it is in fantastic motion - all atoms and molecules carry currents producing magnetic fields. Since a magnetic field is the product of a current, no one can produce a magnetic field without Electricity, moving through or along a conductor, or as electrostatic charges in local or cosmic motion. Tesla's Dynamic Theory of Gravity and MHD method of Spacial Electropulsion brought a cosmic crowning achievement to the works of Faraday, Wm. Thomson, J. J. Thomson, and Edmund Hall. Summation of Tesla's Dynamic Theory of Gravity; An excerpt from: Occult Ether Physics by William R. Lyne
"It is, no doubt, possible that ... (electrical forces) may be discovered to be produced entirely by the action of contiguous particles of some intervening medium, and we have an analogy for this in the case of heat, where certain effects which follow the same laws are undoubtedly propagated from particle to particle. It might also be found that magnetic forces are propagated by means of a second medium, and the force of gravitation by means of a third." Thomson
Edmund Taylor Whittaker
"A history of the theories of aether and electricity." Volumes 1 & 2. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1953.
What Kind of Fluid is a Quark-Gluon Plasma?
The hot soup of free quarks and gluons that existed in the very early universe, and a state of matter that physicists have been trying to re-create amid high-energy nuclear collisions, QGP is actually not a superfluid, as the original version of Update 681 erroneously suggested.
According to University of Washington physicist Laurence Yaffe (206-543-3902, lgy at phys.washington.edu), QGP is actually a normal, conducting fluid. It has viscosity, eliminating it from the list of superfluids. It is somewhat electrically resistive, precluding it from being a superconductor.
"either caloric or a universal ether; higher still perhaps are the causes of gravitation, and the imediate agents of attractions of all kinds... It seems therefore natural to believe that the analogy may be continued still further, until it rises into existences absolutely immaterial and spiritual. We know not but that thousands of spiritual worlds may exist unseen for ever by human eyes." Young