Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. It is a form of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. In some animals, the light is produced by symbiotic organisms such as Vibrio bacteria.

The principal chemical reaction in bioluminescence involves the light-emitting pigment luciferin and the enzyme luciferase, assisted by other proteins such as aequorin in some species. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin. In some species, the type of luciferin requires cofactors such as calcium or magnesium ions, and sometimes also the energy-carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In evolution, luciferins vary little: one in particular, coelenterazine, is found in nine different animal (phyla), though in some of these, the animals obtain it through their diet. Conversely, luciferases vary widely in different species. Bioluminescence has arisen over forty times in evolutionary history. Bioluminescence, Wikipedia

[1] See "The Ox and the Chamois" in Nature as Teacher, p.41, Vol. II of the Ecotechnology series. — Ed.
[2] H-substance: here refers to hydrogen or hydrogen-like substances. — Ed.
[3] Phos-elements: It is not quite clear what is intended here, but it may relate in some way to bioluminescence. However, the following three definitions are provided as an aid to interpretation.
PHOSPHOR: A substance which is capable of luminescence, i.e. storing energy (particularly from ionising radiation) and later releasing it in the form of light. If the energy is released after only a short delay (between 10-10 and 10-4 seconds) the substance is called a 'scintillator'.
PHOSPHORUS: P. Element. Atomic weight 30.9738. Atomic number 15. Occurs in several allotropic forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus being the commonest. The former is a waxy white, very inflammable and poisonous solid. Red phosphorus is a non-poisonous, dark red powder, not very inflammable. The element only occurs in the combined state, mainly as calcium phosphate, CA3(PO4)2, Essential to life; calcium phosphate is the main constituent of animal bones.
PHOSPHATE: Salt of phosphoric acid H3PO4. Phosphates are used as fertilisers to rectify a deficiency of phosphorus in the soil. Note: The editor regrets that he cannot locate the dictionary from which the information was originally sourced.'
[The Energy Evolution - Harnessing Free Energy from Nature, Letter to Werner Zimmermann]

Created by Dale Pond. Last Modification: Monday September 19, 2022 04:25:12 MDT by Dale Pond.